Abstract

The application of an innovative spectroscopic balancing technique to measure the isotope 18O/16O ratio in water vapor is reported. Quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy has been employed as the absorption sensing technique. Two isotope absorption lines with the same quantum numbers, with very close lower energy levels, have been selected to limit the sensitivity to temperature variations and guarantee identical broadening as well as relaxation properties. The sensitivity in measuring the deviation from a standard sample δ18O is 1.4‰, in 200 sec of integration time.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (4)

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Barbour, “Stable oxygen isotope composition of plant tissue: a review,” Funct. Plant Biol. 34(2), 83–94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, “Isotope analysis of water by means of near infrared dual-wavelength diode laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1566–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Andersen, K. K.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuma, N.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, J. M.

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, M.

M. Barbour, “Stable oxygen isotope composition of plant tissue: a review,” Funct. Plant Biol. 34(2), 83–94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnola, J. M.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergamaschi, P.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bigler, M.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biscaye, P.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohlke, J. K.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowling, D. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caillon, N.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chappellaz, J.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clausen, H. B.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Croizé, L.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dahl-Jensen, D.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Bievre, P.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Laeter, J. R.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delmotte, M.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. H.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehleringer, J. R.

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emmenegger, L.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flückiger, J.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritzsche, D.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, Y.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagliardi, G.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, “Isotope analysis of water by means of near infrared dual-wavelength diode laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1566–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, “Isotope analysis of water by means of near infrared dual-wavelength diode laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1566–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goto-Azuma, K.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffis, T. J.

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grønvold, K.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundestrup, N. S.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansson, M.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, G. W.

Herndon, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S. C.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, H.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huber, C.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvidberg, C. S.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, C.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, S. J.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonsell, U.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jouzel, J.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerstel, E.

L. Gianfrani, G. Gagliardi, M. van Burgel, and E. Kerstel, “Isotope analysis of water by means of near infrared dual-wavelength diode laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1566–1576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kipfstuhl, S.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landais, A.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuenberger, M.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, M.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lorrain, R.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masson-Delmotte, V.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcmanus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, H.

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minkoff, S. E.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motoyama, H.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narita, H.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, M.

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, C.

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peiser, H. S.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petra, N.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popp, T.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramaker, R.

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, S. O.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raynaud, D.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosman, K. J. R.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothlisberger, R.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, U.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleska, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samyn, D.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, S. D.

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schupp, M.

Schwander, J.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, H.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siggard-Andersen, M. L.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steffensen, J. P.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stocker, T.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. E.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, A.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takata, M.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, B. D.

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. D. P.

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thorsteinsson, T.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tison, J. L.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method for measurements of small temperature differences in a gas,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 460–462 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuzson, B.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Burgel, M.

van Trigt, R.

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weidmann, D.

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

White, J. W.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelms, F.

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahniser, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zweck, J.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agric. For. Meteorol. (2)

D. R. Bowling, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for stable isotope studies of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 118(1-2), 1–19 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Griffis, J. M. Baker, S. D. Sargent, B. D. Tanner, and J. Zhang, “Measuring field-scale isotopic CO2 fluxes with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and micrometeorological techniques,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 124(1-2), 15–29 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

D. D. Nelson, J. B. Mcmanus, S. C. Herndon, M. S. Zahniser, B. Tuzson, and L. Emmenegger, “New method for isotopic ratio measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a 4.3 μm pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 301–309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Croizé, D. Mondelain, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Janssen, M. Lopez, M. Delmotte, and M. Schmidt, “Isotopic composition and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO2 with a diode laser making use of correlations between non-equivalent absorption cells,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 411–421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, M. Okumura, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide isotopic ratios,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 471–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, J. H. Doty, and F. K. Tittel, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 735–742 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS spectrophones: design, optimization, and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 627–635 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, “Theoretical analysis of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 673–680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 313–329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Funct. Plant Biol. (1)

M. Barbour, “Stable oxygen isotope composition of plant tissue: a review,” Funct. Plant Biol. 34(2), 83–94 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, “A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(16), 2309–2321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. K. Andersen, N. Azuma, J. M. Barnola, M. Bigler, P. Biscaye, N. Caillon, J. Chappellaz, H. B. Clausen, D. Dahl-Jensen, H. Fischer, J. Flückiger, D. Fritzsche, Y. Fujii, K. Goto-Azuma, K. Grønvold, N. S. Gundestrup, M. Hansson, C. Huber, C. S. Hvidberg, S. J. Johnsen, U. Jonsell, J. Jouzel, S. Kipfstuhl, A. Landais, M. Leuenberger, R. Lorrain, V. Masson-Delmotte, H. Miller, H. Motoyama, H. Narita, T. Popp, S. O. Rasmussen, D. Raynaud, R. Rothlisberger, U. Ruth, D. Samyn, J. Schwander, H. Shoji, M. L. Siggard-Andersen, J. P. Steffensen, T. Stocker, A. E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, A. Svensson, M. Takata, J. L. Tison, T. Thorsteinsson, O. Watanabe, F. Wilhelms, and J. W. White, “High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period,” Nature 431(7005), 147–151 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. K. Tittel, D. Weidmann, C. Oppenheimer, and L. Gianfrani, “Laser absorption spectroscopy for volcano monitoring,” Opt. Photon. News 17(5), 24–31 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Bohlke, P. De Bievre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman, and P. D. P. Taylor, “Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report),” Pure Appl. Chem. 75(6), 683–799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, “Applications of Quartz Tuning Forks in Spectroscopic Gas Sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(4), 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta [A] (1)

E. Kerstel, G. Gagliardi, L. Gianfrani, H. Meijer, R. van Trigt, and R. Ramaker, “Determination of the 2H/1H, 17O/16O, and 18O/16O isotope ratios in water by means of tunable diode laser spectroscopy at 1.39 μm,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 58(11), 2389–2396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. A. Kosterev and R. F. Curl, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” International Patent WO 2007/056772 A2 (2007).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the QEPAS-based MOCAM setup. QTF – quartz tuning fork; FC1, 2 – 50:50 optical fiber couplers; CEU-control electronics unit. f – synchronization signal from CEU.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Allan deviation of the δ18O as a function of integration time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main parameters of the selected isotopic absorption lines

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ[ ]= R R st R st ×1000
U R = k R ( P 1 [ H 2 O 18 ] R P 2 [ H 2 O 16 ] R )=0± σ R
P 2 = P 1 [ H 2 O 18 ] R [ H 2 O 16 ] R ± σ R k R [ H 2 O 16 ] R = P 1 R R ± σ R k R [ H 2 O 16 ] R
U A = k A ( P 1 [ H 2 O 18 ] A P 2 [ H 2 O 16 ] A )± σ A = k A ( P 1 [ H 2 O 18 ] A P 1 R R [ H 2 O 16 ] A )± k A [ H 2 O 16 ] A k R [ H 2 O 16 ] R σ R ± σ A = k A P 1 [ H 2 O 16 ] A ( [ H 2 O 18 ] A [ H 2 O 16 ] A R R )± k A [ H 2 O 16 ] A k R [ H 2 O 16 ] R σ R ± σ A = k A P 1 [ H 2 O 16 ] A R R ( R A R R R R )± k A [ H 2 O 16 ] A k R [ H 2 O 16 ] R σ R ± σ A
U A =k P 1 [ H 2 O 16 ] R R δ 18 O 1 1000 ± σ R ± σ A = = U A1 R R δ 18 O 1 1000 ± 2 σ
δ 18 O= U A U A1 1000 R R
δ 18 O= U A + U off U A1 1000 R R .
Δδ ΔT ΔE k T 2 1000

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