Abstract

We demonstrate an integrated microparticle passive sorting system based on the near-field optical forces exerted by a 3-dB optical splitter that consists of a slot waveguide and a conventional channel waveguide. We show that 320 nm and 2 µm polystyrene particles brought into the splitter are sorted so that they exit along the slot waveguide and channel waveguide, respectively. Electromagnetic simulations and precise position tracking experiments are carried out to investigate the sorting mechanism. As the waveguides are separated by 200 nm, they provide two potential wells for the smaller particles, but only one broad potential well for the larger particles, since their diameters exceed the distance between the two field maxima. A structural perturbation consisting of a stuck bead transfers the smaller particles to the second well associated with the slot waveguide, while the larger particles are brought to the region between the two waveguides and eventually follow the channel waveguide, as it is associated with a deeper potential well. This label-free passive particle sorting system requires low guided power (20 mW in these experiments), and provides a new technique for sorting sub-micron particles.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Lin, J. Hu, L. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Design of nanoslotted photonic crystal waveguide cavities for single nanoparticle trapping and detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3451–3453 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Schonbrun and K. B. Crozier, “Spring constant modulation in a zone plate tweezer using linear polarization,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2017–2019 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, S. Kuriakose, V. Garcés-Chávez, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical deflection and sorting of microparticles in a near-field optical geometry,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3712–3726 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (2)

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, J. Hu, L. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Design of nanoslotted photonic crystal waveguide cavities for single nanoparticle trapping and detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3451–3453 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

K. Grujic, O. Hellesø, J. Hole, and J. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(1), 1–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, F. H.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bado, P.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, W. A.

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, W. F.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, J. Hu, L. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Design of nanoslotted photonic crystal waveguide cavities for single nanoparticle trapping and detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3451–3453 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun and K. B. Crozier, “Spring constant modulation in a zone plate tweezer using linear polarization,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2017–2019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, C. Rinzler, and K. B. Crozier, “Microfabricated water immersion zone plate optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dees, B.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dugan, M. A.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiedler, S.

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, A. H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friis, P.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, A. Y.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuhr, G.

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

Goranovic, G.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grujic, K.

Gu, M.

Hagen, N.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellesø, O.

Herzenberg, L. A.

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoi, S. K.

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hole, J.

Hu, J.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, J. Hu, L. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Design of nanoslotted photonic crystal waveguide cavities for single nanoparticle trapping and detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3451–3453 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulett, H. R.

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kariv, I.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kuriakose, S.

Kutter, J. P.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, U. D.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, J. Hu, L. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Design of nanoslotted photonic crystal waveguide cavities for single nanoparticle trapping and detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3451–3453 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchand, P. J.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchington, R. F.

Marr, D. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazilu, M.

Mercer, E. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakey, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsen, C. R.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quake, S. R.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymond, D. E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, P. J.

Rinzler, C.

E. Schonbrun, C. Rinzler, and K. B. Crozier, “Microfabricated water immersion zone plate optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnelle, T.

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun and K. B. Crozier, “Spring constant modulation in a zone plate tweezer using linear polarization,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2017–2019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schonbrun, C. Rinzler, and K. B. Crozier, “Microfabricated water immersion zone plate optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, S. G.

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sow, C. H.

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, C.

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinvurzel, P.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweet, R. G.

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telleman, P.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udalagama, C.

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vestad, T.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watt, F.

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

Wolff, A.

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, J.

E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Fiedler, S. G. Shirley, T. Schnelle, and G. Fuhr, “Dielectrophoretic sorting of particles and cells in a microsystem,” Anal. Chem. 70(9), 1909–1915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. K. Hoi, C. Udalagama, C. H. Sow, F. Watt, and A. A. Bettiol, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical force switching,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 859–865 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Schonbrun, C. Rinzler, and K. B. Crozier, “Microfabricated water immersion zone plate optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

A. Wolff, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, U. D. Larsen, P. Friis, G. Goranovic, C. R. Poulsen, J. P. Kutter, and P. Telleman, “Integrating advanced functionality in a microfabricated high-throughput fluorescent-activated cell sorter,” Lab Chip 3(1), 22–27 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, D. W. Marr, P. Bado, M. A. Dugan, and A. A. Said, “Microfluidic sorting system based on optical waveguide integration and diode laser bar trapping,” Lab Chip 6(3), 422–426 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Scannable plasmonic trapping using a gold stripe,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3506–3511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, and K. B. Crozier, “Propulsion of gold nanoparticles with surface plasmon polaritons: evidence of enhanced optical force from near-field coupling between gold particle and gold film,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2623–2629 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Fu, C. Spence, A. Scherer, F. H. Arnold, and S. R. Quake, “A microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(11), 1109–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

K. Wang, E. Schonbrun, P. Steinvurzel, and K. B. Crozier, “Trapping and rotating nanoparticles using a plasmonic nano-tweezer with an integrated heat sink,” Nat. Commun. 2, 469 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, “Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice,” Nature 426(6965), 421–424 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Hu, S. Lin, L. C. Kimerling, and K. Crozier, “Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

E. Schonbrun, J. Wong, and K. B. Crozier, “Co- and cross-flow extensions in an elliptical optical trap,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(4), 042401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. A. Bonner, H. R. Hulett, R. G. Sweet, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Fluorescence activated cell sorting,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43(3), 404–409 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Shiyun and K. B. Crozier, “Optical trapping with real-time feedback using planar silicon micro-ring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThB6.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1327 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microparticle sorting device: schematic diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the 3-dB splitter; the inset shows an enlarged image of the coupling region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power (μW) versus wavelength (nm) from SWG and CWG when input to device is TE mode (orange and blue curves) and when it is TM mode (red and black curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CCD image of the sorting with a guided power of 20 mW. The waveguides are indicated by the gray lines in the first frame. The trapped particles are marked by white arrows with the indicators S and L for the 320 nm and 2 µm particles, respectively. The obstacle particle is marked in the second frame (Media 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In-plane gradient forces (Fy) and potential depth plotted as a function of particle position for (a) 320 nm and (b) 2 µm particles at start of bending region. Similarly, Fy and potential depth are plotted for (c) 320 nm and (d) 2 µm particles at distance of 7 µm from start of bending region. Optical forces are calculated by Maxwell stress tensor method using fields found from 3D FDTD simulations. To indicate the positions of the waveguides, the cross sections of the CWG and SWG are shown in (a)-(d). The guided power in the incident waveguide is taken as 20 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Traces of two small and two large particles passing through the coupling region. The positions are tracked using center of mass analysis of each frame of the Supplemental Movie. The stuck particle is indicated by an arrow.

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