Abstract

Planar metamaterials consisting of subwavelength resonators have been recently proposed for thin dielectric film sensing in the terahertz frequency range. Although the thickness of the dielectric film can be very small compared with the wavelength, the required area of sensed material is still determined by the diffraction-limited spot size of the terahertz beam excitation. In this article, terahertz near-field sensing is utilized to reduce the spot size. By positioning the metamaterial sensing platform close to the sub-diffraction terahertz source, the number of excited resonators, and hence minimal film area, are significantly reduced. As an additional advantage, a reduction in the number of excited resonators decreases the inter-cell coupling strength, and consequently the resonance Q factor is remarkably increased. The experimental results show that the resonance Q factor is improved by more than a factor of two compared to the far-field measurement. Moreover, for a film with a thickness of λ/375 the minimal area can be as small as 0.2λ × 0.2λ. The success of this work provides a platform for future metamaterial-based sensors for biomolecular detection.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. A. I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2012), (in press).

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

W. Withayachumnankul, K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor,” IEEE Sensors J. (2012). (In press).

2011

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. S.-Y. Ung, and D. Abbott, “Comprehensive modeling of THz microscope with a sub-wavelength source,” Opt. Express 19, 5327–5338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as Gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672–17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2000

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

W. Withayachumnankul, K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor,” IEEE Sensors J. (2012). (In press).

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. S.-Y. Ung, and D. Abbott, “Comprehensive modeling of THz microscope with a sub-wavelength source,” Opt. Express 19, 5327–5338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as Gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672–17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Material thickness optimization for transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 7382–7396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, H. Lin, and D. Abbott, “Uncertainty in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1059–1072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. A. I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2012), (in press).

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhaskaran, M.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).

Born, N.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brenckle, M. A.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chieffo, L. R.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. Y.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ekmekci, E.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frimmer, M.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fumeaux, C.

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822–1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16, 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Jansen, C.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jaruwongrungsee, K.

W. Withayachumnankul, K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor,” IEEE Sensors J. (2012). (In press).

Jensby, K.

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawayama, I.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Khan, R. U. A.

Khodasevych, I. E.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Kitaoka, Y.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, A.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. S.-Y. Ung, and D. Abbott, “Comprehensive modeling of THz microscope with a sub-wavelength source,” Opt. Express 19, 5327–5338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Modelling of sub-wavelength THz sources as Gaussian apertures,” Opt. Express 18, 17672–17683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, H. Lin, and D. Abbott, “Uncertainty in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1059–1072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Mizuno, S.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Neis, M.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. A. I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2012), (in press).

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16, 1786–1795 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palit, S.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, W. S. T.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Ruiz, B.

Schneider, A.

Serita, K.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Sersic, I.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shah, C. M.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Siebert, S. M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sriram, S.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stillhart, M.

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, Y.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tonouchi, M.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Ung, B. S. Y.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

Ung, B. S.-Y.

H. Lin, C. Fumeaux, B. S.-Y. Ung, and D. Abbott, “Comprehensive modeling of THz microscope with a sub-wavelength source,” Opt. Express 19, 5327–5338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor,” IEEE Sensors J. (2012). (In press).

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. A. I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2012), (in press).

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, H. Lin, and D. Abbott, “Uncertainty in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1059–1072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “Material thickness optimization for transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 7382–7396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, “Limitation in thin-film detection with transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Arxiv preprint arXiv:1111.3498 (2011).

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23, 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Jansen, I. A. I. Al-Naib, N. Born, and M. Koch, “Terahertz metasurfaces with high Q-factors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, and A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (2012), (in press).

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).

T. Driscoll, G. O. Andreev, D. N. Basov, S. Palit, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 99–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J.

W. Withayachumnankul, K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, “Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor,” IEEE Sensors J. (2012). (In press).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves

J. F. O’Hara, W. Withayachumnankul, and I. A. I. Al-Naib, “A review on thin-film sensing with terahertz waves,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2012), (in press).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, “Carrier dynamics of electrons and holes in moderately doped silicon,” Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 41, 12140–12149 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. Koenderink, “Electric and magnetic dipole coupling in near-infrared split-ring metamaterial arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S.-Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95, 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Withayachumnankul, “Limitation in thin-film detection with transmission-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Arxiv preprint arXiv:1111.3498 (2011).

K. Serita, S. Mizuno, H. Murakami, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, Y. Takahashi, M. Yoshimura, Y. Kitaoka, and Y. Mori, “Development of laser scanning terahertz imaging system using organic nonlinear optical crystal,” in “35th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves,” (Rome, Italy, 2010). DOI:.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Split-ring resonators. (a) Schematic of a single unit cell. The polarization for operation is indicated inside the split ring. The dimensions are as follows: a = 55 μm, d = 45 μm, b = 5 μm, and g = 5 μm. (b) Partial view of the fabricated metamaterial under an optical microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modelled cross sections of terahertz beam, showing the normalized Ey component (a) at a distance of 25 μm, and (b) at a distance of 50 μm from the crystal surface. The far-field electric-field polarization is in the y-axis. The cross sections are registered at 0.4 THz. The red lines define the 1/e spot size. The rectangular boxes in (b) illustrate the area of test samples from (i) 150×150 μm2, (ii) 450×450 μm2, to (iii) 700×700 μm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample and its placement in near-field. (a) Metamaterial coated with photoresist S1818G with an area of 450×450 μm2 and a thickness of 2 μm. (b) Schematic (not to scale) showing the location of the sample under measurement by terahertz near-field system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field measurement results. The transmission of the uncoated metamaterial is accompanied by the error bars with one standard deviation. The transmission profiles for the metamaterial with photoresist films with an area of 700×700, 450×450, and 150×150 μm2 are mostly masked by the error bars. The Q factor is calculated from f0f, where Δf is a difference in the frequency points where the transmission magnitude is half-way between the unity and minimum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field measurement results. The transmission of the uncoated metamaterial is accompanied by the error bars with one standard deviation. The resonance frequency of the uncoated metamaterial is 0.427 THz, and the resonance frequencies in the case of 700×700, 450×450, 150×150 μm2 films are 0.404, 0.414, and 0.420 THz, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field resonance characteristics. The frequency shift (a) and Q factor (b) are plotted as a function of the film width. The frequency shift is with respect to the resonance frequency of the uncoated metamaterial (zero film width). The dotted lines are merely for visual guidance.

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