Abstract

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has shown its remarkable applications in biosensing, bioimaging, and nanophotonics. Unlike surface plasmon polariton (SPP), the current studies regarding LSPR as biosensor were restricted in probing the extinction spectra, and thus limit the performance in biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we reveal that optical phase of LSPR provides an acute change at resonance beyond extinction spectra, which permits an ultra-high sensitivity in phase interrogation. We found that optical phases of LSPR show two orders of magnitude higher sensing resolution than extinction spectra among the same nanostructures. For the first time, we demonstrated the feasibility of probing optical phase transduction in LSPR for biosensing, and the sensitivity is superior to not only the extinction spectra among the same metallic nanostructures, but also the LSPR sensors among the current literatures. In summary, the exploitation of LSPR by phase interrogation essentially complements the sensitivity insufficiency of LSPR, and provides new access to understanding and using the rich physics of LSPR.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, P. Alitalo, and S. Tretyakov, “Effective model and investigation of the near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging properties of multilayer arrays of plasmonic nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1), 016607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Larsson, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions,” Science 326(5956), 1091–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, Y. Park, T. Kang, and L. P. Lee, “Selective and sensitive detection of metal ions by plasmonic resonance energy transfer-based nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 742–746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Auguié and W. L. Barnes, “Diffractive coupling in gold nanoparticle arrays and the effect of disorder,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 401–403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Malic, B. Cui, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization on periodic gold nanoposts,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3092–3094 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold and silver nanoparticles in sensing and imaging: sensitivity of plasmon response to size, shape, and metal composition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(39), 19220–19225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 829–834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. J. Chen, F. C. Chien, G. Y. Lin, and K. C. Lee, “Enhancement of the resolution of surface plasmon resonance biosensors by control of the size and distribution of nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1390–1392 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of planar metallic photonic crystal structures: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 70(12), 125113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ziegler, “Cantilever-based biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 946–959 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Waveguide-plasmon polaritons: strong coupling of photonic and electronic resonances in a metallic photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(18), 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between light and gold nanoparticles: selective suppression of extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. Quinten, A. Heilmann, and A. Kiesow, “Refined interpretation of optical extinction spectra of nanoparticles in plasma polymer films,”Appl. Phys, B-Lasers Opt. 68(4), 707–712 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: Surface plasmon resonance spectrum of a periodic array of silver nanoparticles by ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy and electrodynamic modeling,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(13), 2394–2401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quantum Electron. 28(5), 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, “An accurate electromagnetic theory study of surface enhancement factors for silver, gold, copper, lithium, sodium, aluminum, gallium, indium, zinc, and cadmium,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(3), 634–643 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alitalo, P.

S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, P. Alitalo, and S. Tretyakov, “Effective model and investigation of the near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging properties of multilayer arrays of plasmonic nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1), 016607 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubard, J.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auguié, B.

Aussenegg, F. R.

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Y. Choi, Y. Park, T. Kang, and L. P. Lee, “Selective and sensitive detection of metal ions by plasmonic resonance energy transfer-based nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 742–746 (2009).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 829–834 (2005).
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T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
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Farach-Carson, M. C.

D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
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G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
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Franzl, T.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
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X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
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G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
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Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Waveguide-plasmon polaritons: strong coupling of photonic and electronic resonances in a metallic photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(18), 183901 (2003).
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S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between light and gold nanoparticles: selective suppression of extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4688–4691 (2001).
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Gippius, N. A.

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of planar metallic photonic crystal structures: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 70(12), 125113 (2004).
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A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Waveguide-plasmon polaritons: strong coupling of photonic and electronic resonances in a metallic photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(18), 183901 (2003).
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Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
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Gunnarsson, L.

E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
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Hafner, J. H.

D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiepa, H. M.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. J.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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Huang, X. H.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. H. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: applications in oral cancer,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 829–834 (2005).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, T.

Y. Choi, Y. Park, T. Kang, and L. P. Lee, “Selective and sensitive detection of metal ions by plasmonic resonance energy transfer-based nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 742–746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

E. M. Larsson, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions,” Science 326(5956), 1091–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerman, K.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesow, A.

M. Quinten, A. Heilmann, and A. Kiesow, “Refined interpretation of optical extinction spectra of nanoparticles in plasma polymer films,”Appl. Phys, B-Lasers Opt. 68(4), 707–712 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. K.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, W. L.

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochergin, V. E.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quantum Electron. 28(5), 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kociak, M.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowarik, S.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ksenevich, T. I.

P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 43–50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, and H. Giessen, “Optical properties of planar metallic photonic crystal structures: Experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B 70(12), 125113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Waveguide-plasmon polaritons: strong coupling of photonic and electronic resonances in a metallic photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(18), 183901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between light and gold nanoparticles: selective suppression of extinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4688–4691 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurzinger, K.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhammer, C.

E. M. Larsson, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions,” Science 326(5956), 1091–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, Z. Yuan, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Plasmonic properties of supported Pt and Pd nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 833–838 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapotko, D. O.

D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, E. M.

E. M. Larsson, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, and B. Kasemo, “Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions,” Science 326(5956), 1091–1094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
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Lee, K. C.

Lee, K. J.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
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Y. Choi, Y. Park, T. Kang, and L. P. Lee, “Selective and sensitive detection of metal ions by plasmonic resonance energy transfer-based nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 742–746 (2009).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
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X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
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C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
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T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
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T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
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K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 43–50 (1999).
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V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quantum Electron. 28(5), 444–448 (1998).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
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Park, Y.

Y. Choi, Y. Park, T. Kang, and L. P. Lee, “Selective and sensitive detection of metal ions by plasmonic resonance energy transfer-based nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 742–746 (2009).
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
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Peng, J. C.

X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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V. Myroshnychenko, E. Carbó-Argibay, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Modeling the Optical Response of Highly Faceted Metal Nanoparticles with a Fully 3D Boundary Element Method,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(22), 4288–4293 (2008).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 (2003).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
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C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
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E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
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Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
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T. R. Jensen, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: Surface plasmon resonance spectrum of a periodic array of silver nanoparticles by ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy and electrodynamic modeling,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(13), 2394–2401 (1999).
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E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, “An accurate electromagnetic theory study of surface enhancement factors for silver, gold, copper, lithium, sodium, aluminum, gallium, indium, zinc, and cadmium,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(3), 634–643 (1987).
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N. Félidj, J. Aubard, G. Levi, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optimized surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 3095–3097 (2003).
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Y. Z. Chu, E. Schonbrun, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental observation of narrow surface plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181108 (2008).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sonnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kurzinger, “Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering,” Nano Lett. 3(7), 935–938 (2003).
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C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
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E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
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S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, P. Alitalo, and S. Tretyakov, “Effective model and investigation of the near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging properties of multilayer arrays of plasmonic nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1), 016607 (2011).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
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Tamiya, E.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, H. M. Hiepa, D. K. Kim, Y. Yonezawa, K. Nakano, and E. Tamiya, “Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip,” Anal. Chem. 78(18), 6465–6475 (2006).
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M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
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S. Steshenko, F. Capolino, P. Alitalo, and S. Tretyakov, “Effective model and investigation of the near-field enhancement and subwavelength imaging properties of multilayer arrays of plasmonic nanospheres,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1), 016607 (2011).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. A. Beloglazov, V. E. Kochergin, M. V. Valeiko, and T. I. Ksenevich, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for biological and chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 54(1-2), 43–50 (1999).
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V. E. Kochergin, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, and P. I. Nikitin, “Phase properties of a surface-plasmon resonance from the viewpoint of sensor applications,” Quantum Electron. 28(5), 444–448 (1998).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005).
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E. M. Hicks, S. L. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Jensen, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere lithography: Surface plasmon resonance spectrum of a periodic array of silver nanoparticles by ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy and electrodynamic modeling,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(13), 2394–2401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. J. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 391–397 (2011).
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Veres, T.

Wagner, D. S.

D. S. Wagner, N. A. Delk, E. Y. Lukianova-Hleb, J. H. Hafner, M. C. Farach-Carson, and D. O. Lapotko, “The in vivo performance of plasmonic nanobubbles as cell theranostic agents in zebrafish hosting prostate cancer xenografts,” Biomaterials 31(29), 7567–7574 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, S. A.

Wang, H. F.

X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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X. H. Wang, Y. A. Li, H. F. Wang, Q. X. Fu, J. C. Peng, Y. L. Wang, J. A. Du, Y. Zhou, and L. S. Zhan, “Gold nanorod-based localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor for sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus in buffer, blood serum and plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(2), 404–410 (2010).
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Wegener, M.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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ACS Nano (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LSPR probed by phase interrogation under TIR configuration. (a) Phase interrogation was first operated under TIR configuration. Three kinds of nanostructure arrays served LSPR sensing: nanodisk, nanorod (L), and nanorod (T). For nanorod (L), the electric field of s-polarized wave was parallel to the long axis. For nanorod (T), the electric field of s-polarized wave was parallel to the short axis. (b) AFM image of nanodisk and nanorod arrays prepared by electron beam lithography.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction spectra of nanostructures. (a) Nanodisk owns one dipolar resonant wavelength which is 632.8 nm. (b), (c) Nanorod owns two dipolar resonant wavelength which transverse mode occurs at 577.2 nm (nanorod (T)), and longitudinal mode occurs at 794.1 nm (nanorod (L)). 2 M glucose solution was introduced in order to measure the sensitivity, and both nanodisk and nanorod showed the red shift on resonant wavelengths. (d) Charge density distribution of nanostructures’ eigen-modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensitivity measurements of LSPR by phase interrogation under TIR configuration. (a) Sucrose solutions with different concentrations were introduced gradually, and led to the phase shift of nanostructures. The highest sensitivity in the nanodisk was 4.06 rad/RIU under a 65° incidence. The highest sensitivity in nanorod (L) was 10.95 rad/RIU and in nanorod (T) was 2.34 rad/RIU under a 50° incidence. Five times of measurements were conducted in each nanostructural configurations in order to confirm the experiments. (b) Incidence can be decomposed into s- and p-polarized evanescent waves. Sensitivity differences among the three nanostructural configurations were due to the correlation of the resonance modes between s- and p-polarized evanescent waves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase diagrams and sensitivity measurements of Au film (50 nm), blank substrate without a nanostructure array, and nanorod (L) array. (a) The phase diagram of Au film corresponded to a regular SPR phase diagram with the resonant angle of 54.5° (corresponding to the right axis). The optical phases changed along with the angle in the blank substrate were due to the optical phase difference between s- and p-polarized waves traveling under TIR (corresponding to the left axis). The phase curve in nanorod (L) is similar to the blank substrate (corresponding to the left axis), indicating that the optical phase change in nanorod (L) was induced by the ensemble of LSPR excitation and TIR, rather than SPR excitation. (b) The Au film exhibited a sensitivity of 155.32 rad/RIU, which is the regular sensitivity of SPR in phase interrogation. The sensitivity of the blank substrate was 0.7 rad/RIU under a 65° incidence, and the sensitivity of nanorod (L) was 6.05 rad/RIU under a 65° incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LSPR probed by phase interrogation under coupler-free configuration. (a) Coupler-free configuration is operated by normal incidence from the glass side, and the transmittance is analyzed. Nanorod array was adopted for the measurement, and the included angle between the long axis of the nanorod and the electric field of incidence was 45°. (b) The sensitivity measurement shows that the sensitivity of LSPR under coupler-free configuration was 1.03 rad/RIU. The lower sensitivity than LSPR under the TIR configuration was obtained owing to the different excitation waves and probing methods: TIR configuration was excited by an evanescent wave and the reflectance was under analysis; coupler-free configuration was excited by a plane wave and the transmittance was under analysis.

Equations (5)

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E S = A S 2 ( 1 0 0 e i π 2 )( 1 1 )= A S 2 ( 1 i ), where A S =| A S | e i ϕ S S wave after 1/4 wave plate
E P = A P 2 ( 1 0 0 e i π 2 )( 1 1 )= A P 2 ( 1 i ), where A P =| A P | e i ϕ P P wave after 1/4 wave plate
E S ' =( cos 2 θ sinθcosθ sinθcosθ sin 2 θ ) E S = A S 2 e iθ ( cosθ sinθ ) S wave after linear polarizer
E P ' =( cos 2 θ sinθcosθ sinθcosθ sin 2 θ ) E P = A P 2 e iθ ( cosθ sinθ ) P wave after linear polarizer
tan( ϕ PS )= I( π/4 )I( 3π/4 ) I( 0 )I( π/2 ) = sin( ϕ PS ) cos( ϕ PS )

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