Abstract

By deviating the nanodisk from the center in the silver nanocrescent/nanodisk structure, we find that the dipole, quadrupole and octupole modes can all induce very high local electric field enhancement (LFE, more than 750) for the coupling of nanocrescent and crescent gap modes, which makes the resonant wavelengths of the non-concentric nanostructures change from the visible to near infrared regions. In addition, the LFE factor of the quadrupole mode is more than 1000, which is suitable for single molecular detection by local surface enhanced spectroscopy.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, J. B. Pendry, and A. Aubry, “Surface plasmons and singularities,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4186–4191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Wu, B. M. Ross, and L. P. Lee, “Optical properties of the crescent-shaped nanohole Antenna,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1956–1961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, S. Hong, and L. P. Lee, “Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3726–3731 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Creating high density nanoantenna arrays via plasmon enhanced particle-cavity (PEP-C) architectures,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6860–6866 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Plasmon tuning and local field enhancement maximization of the nanocrescent,” Nanotechnology 19(27), 275201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 75(7), 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Intra-particle plasmonic coupling of tip and cavity resonance modes in metallic apertured nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8332–8338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubry, A.

Y. Luo, J. B. Pendry, and A. Aubry, “Surface plasmons and singularities,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4186–4191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, D. J.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 75(7), 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, M. T.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, S. Hong, and L. P. Lee, “Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3726–3731 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A. W.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, J. C.

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doll, J. C.

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorpe, P. V.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duyne, R. P.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, D. H.

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. G.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Martín, A.

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glidle, A.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henry, A.-I.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

Y. Choi, S. Hong, and L. P. Lee, “Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3726–3731 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüser, F.

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, T. Q.

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Intra-particle plasmonic coupling of tip and cavity resonance modes in metallic apertured nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8332–8338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, X.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassiter, B.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. P.

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Creating high density nanoantenna arrays via plasmon enhanced particle-cavity (PEP-C) architectures,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6860–6866 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, S. Hong, and L. P. Lee, “Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3726–3731 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Wu, B. M. Ross, and L. P. Lee, “Optical properties of the crescent-shaped nanohole Antenna,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1956–1961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Plasmon tuning and local field enhancement maximization of the nanocrescent,” Nanotechnology 19(27), 275201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Intra-particle plasmonic coupling of tip and cavity resonance modes in metallic apertured nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8332–8338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, D. Y.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

J. Kim, G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Intra-particle plasmonic coupling of tip and cavity resonance modes in metallic apertured nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8332–8338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Intra-particle plasmonic coupling of tip and cavity resonance modes in metallic apertured nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8332–8338 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, J. B. Pendry, and A. Aubry, “Surface plasmons and singularities,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4186–4191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, L.

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. M.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Murray, W. A.

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Natan, M. J.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natelson, D.

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauly, F.

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

Y. Luo, J. B. Pendry, and A. Aubry, “Surface plasmons and singularities,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4186–4191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, T.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, B. M.

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Creating high density nanoantenna arrays via plasmon enhanced particle-cavity (PEP-C) architectures,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6860–6866 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Wu, B. M. Ross, and L. P. Lee, “Optical properties of the crescent-shaped nanohole Antenna,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1956–1961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Plasmon tuning and local field enhancement maximization of the nanocrescent,” Nanotechnology 19(27), 275201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobhani, H.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 75(7), 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sonnefraud, Y.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, D. R.

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. Y.

L. Y. Wu, B. M. Ross, and L. P. Lee, “Optical properties of the crescent-shaped nanohole Antenna,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1956–1961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wustholz, K. L.

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

T. Qiu, J. Jiang, W. Zhang, X. Lang, X. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “High-sensitivity and stable cellular fluorescence imaging by patterned silver nanocap arrays,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(8), 2465–2470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and Fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, “Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(22), 2683–2688 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Murray and W. L. Barnes, “Plasmonic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3771–3782 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. M. McMahon, A.-I. Henry, K. L. Wustholz, M. J. Natan, R. G. Freeman, R. P. Duyne, and G. C. Schatz, “Gold nanoparticle dimer plasmonics: finite element method calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 394(7), 1819–1825 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Mao, Z. Li, B. Wu, and H. Xu, “Effects of quantum tunneling in metal nanogap on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 243102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, T. Q. Jia, D. H. Feng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Quadrupole plasmon resonance mode in nanocrescent/nanodisk structure: Local field enhancement and tunability in the visible light region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 163110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

L. Y. Wu, B. M. Ross, and L. P. Lee, “Optical properties of the crescent-shaped nanohole Antenna,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1956–1961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, S. Hong, and L. P. Lee, “Shadow overlap ion-beam lithography for nanoarchitectures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3726–3731 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, J. B. Pendry, and A. Aubry, “Surface plasmons and singularities,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4186–4191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga, E. Prodan, and P. Nordlander, “Quantum description of the plasmon resonances of a nanoparticle dimer,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 887–891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Plasmon tuning and local field enhancement maximization of the nanocrescent,” Nanotechnology 19(27), 275201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

D. R. Ward, F. Hüser, F. Pauly, J. C. Cuevas, and D. Natelson, “Optical rectification and field enhancement in a plasmonic nanogap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 732–736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (6)

A. García-Martín, D. R. Ward, D. Natelson, and J. C. Cuevas, “Field enhancement in subnanometer metallic gaps,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 193404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced tunability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Aubry, D. Y. Lei, S. A. Maier, and J. B. Pendry, “Broadband plasmonic device concentrating the energy at the nanoscale: The crescent-shaped cylinder,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements,” Phys. Rev. B 75(7), 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Jung, T. Søndergaard, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap plasmon-polariton nanoresonators: Scattering enhancement and launching of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Li, M. I. Stockman, and D. J. Bergman, “Self-similar chain of metal nanospheres as an efficient nanolens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 227402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57(3), 783–826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (John-Wiley and Sons, 1983).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The sketch of the NNCND structure and the incident light (R = 60 nm, r = 40 nm, ∆1 = 19 nm, w = 30 nm, s = 1 nm, and d = 1 nm). (b) LFE spectra of the NNCND structure with different D. (c-e) The LFE factors of NCND (squares) and NNCND (circles) structures at (c) dipolar, (d) quadrupolar, and (e) octupolar resonance wavelengths as a function of the disk radius.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The distribution of electric field amplitude and orientation of the quadrupole modes of the NNCND structures with disk radius of (a) 38.2 and (b) 39 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-d) The distributions of electric field amplitudes and (e) the normalized LFE factors in the cavity inner walls at dipole resonance wavelength. The lines (a-d) in figure (e) represent the cases of figures (a)-(d), respectively. The tip apex is set as the start point of the arc length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The distribution of electric field amplitude of octupolar resonance modes of (a) crescent, (b) ring gap, (c) cresent gap and (d) NNCND structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) LFE factors and (b) resonance wavelengths of the NNCND structures as a function of the least gaps d between crescent tip and disk.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LFE spectra of the NNCND structure with dielectric insertions in all space (a) and in the gap (b) with the refractive indexes of 1 (black solid line), 1.5 (red dashed line) and 2 (blue dash-dotted line), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The geometry of the NNCND structure with 24 randomly distributed surface faults, and (b) the LFE factors of the NNCND with 0, 12 and 24 surface faults.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The LFE factors for k taken as 0 and 0.6.

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