Abstract

A novel fiber-optic twist sensor based on a dual-polarization distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber grating laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By beating the signal between the two polarizations of the laser which operates at 1543.154nm, a signal of 30.78MHz in frequency domain is observed. The twist will change the fiber birefringence, and resulting in the beat frequency variation between the two polarization modes from the fiber laser. The result shows the beat frequency shifts as a Sinc function curve with the twist angle and both the measuring curve period and twist sensitivity depend on the twist length of the laser cavity. A high twist sensitivity of 6.68MHz/rad has been obtained at the twist length of 17.5cm. Moreover, the sensor is insensitive to the environmental temperature, as well as strain along the fiber axis with ultralow beat frequency coefficients, making temperature and axial strain compensation unnecessary.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. T. V. Grattan and T. Sun, “Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview,” Sens. Actuators 82(1-3), 40–61 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).
  4. X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, D. Chen, and H. Y. Tam, “High-temperature-resistant distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser written in Er/Yb co-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2958–2964 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. S. Liu, M. Jiang, D. Chen, and S. He, “Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode polarization-maintaining fiber laser and its application in microwave generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4455–4459 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhang and B. O. Guan, “High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 280–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Liu, T. Guo, A. C. Wong, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “Highly sensitive bending sensor based on Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17834–17840 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Guo, A. C. Wong, W. S. Liu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Beat-frequency adjustable Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser for ultrasound detection,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2485–2492 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. O. Guan and S. N. Wang, “Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 230–232 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Guo, A. C. Wong, W. S. Liu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Beat-frequency adjustable Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser for ultrasound detection,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2485–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Liu, T. Guo, A. C. Wong, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “Highly sensitive bending sensor based on Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17834–17840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan and S. N. Wang, “Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 230–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Zhang and B. O. Guan, “High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Liu, M. Jiang, D. Chen, and S. He, “Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode polarization-maintaining fiber laser and its application in microwave generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4455–4459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, D. Chen, and H. Y. Tam, “High-temperature-resistant distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser written in Er/Yb co-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2958–2964 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6394–6399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).

2000

K. T. V. Grattan and T. Sun, “Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview,” Sens. Actuators 82(1-3), 40–61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

Andrés, M. V.

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, A. J.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Bennion, I.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Chen, L.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J. Y.

J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).

Cruz, J. L.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

K. T. V. Grattan and T. Sun, “Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview,” Sens. Actuators 82(1-3), 40–61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

T. Guo, A. C. Wong, W. S. Liu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Beat-frequency adjustable Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser for ultrasound detection,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2485–2492 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan and S. N. Wang, “Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 230–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and B. O. Guan, “High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, D. Chen, and H. Y. Tam, “High-temperature-resistant distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser written in Er/Yb co-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2958–2964 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

He, S.

Jian, S.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Jin, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).

Lim, J. H.

J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).

Liu, W.

Liu, W. S.

Lou, S.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lu, W.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramskov-Hansen, J. J.

Simon, A.

Sun, T.

K. T. V. Grattan and T. Sun, “Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview,” Sens. Actuators 82(1-3), 40–61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Torres-Peiró, S.

Ulrich, R.

Wang, H. J.

Wang, L.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. N.

B. O. Guan and S. N. Wang, “Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 230–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. C.

Zalvidea, D.

Zhang, L.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. W.

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and B. O. Guan, “High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, H. J. Wang, D. Chen, and H. Y. Tam, “High-temperature-resistant distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser written in Er/Yb co-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2958–2964 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, H.

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zu, P.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, and K. S. Lee, “Optical fiber twist sensor with two orthogonally oriented mechanically induced long-period grating sections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 453–455 (2005).

X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “In-fiber twist sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating with 81 tilted structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2596–2598 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, Y. Jin, T. Gong, Y. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “A temperature-insensitive twist sensor by using low-birefringence photonic-crystal-fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 920–922 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Lou, L. Wang, H. Zou, W. Lu, and S. Jian, “Highly sensitive torsion sensor based on Sagnac interferometer using side-leakage photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1639–1641 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, Y. Zhang, L. W. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Electrically tunable microwave generation using compact dual-polarization fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 727–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and B. O. Guan, “High-sensitivity distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser displacement sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 280–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan and S. N. Wang, “Fiber grating laser current sensor based on magnetic force,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 230–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Liu, M. Jiang, D. Chen, and S. He, “Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode polarization-maintaining fiber laser and its application in microwave generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4455–4459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Characteristics of the distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for lateral force measurement,” Opt. Commun. 281(18), 4619–4622 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sens. Actuators

K. T. V. Grattan and T. Sun, “Fiber optic sensor technology: an overview,” Sens. Actuators 82(1-3), 40–61 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the twist sensor based on short cavity DBR fiber laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum of the DBR fiber laser observed by OSA. (b) Beat signal spectrum of the DBR fiber laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measuring curve period changes with the twist length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength and polarization beat frequency variation as a function of strain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength and polarization beat frequency variation as a function of temperature.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δν=Bc/ n eff λ 0
ΔΦ=2 sin 1 ( ρ 1+ ρ 2 sinγz )
ρ= Δβ 2(ωα) γ= 1 2 Δ β 2 +4 (ωα) 2
α=gω
ΔΦ=Δβ sin[(ωα)z] ωα
ΔB=B sin[(ωα)z] ωα

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