Abstract

We present the first study of the photosensitivity of GeS binary glasses in response to irradiation to femtosecond pulses at 800nm. A maximum positive refractive index change of 3.5x10−3 is demonstrated with the possibility to control the waveguide diameter from ~8 to ~50 µm by adjusting the input pulse energy. It is also demonstrated that under different exposure conditions, a maximum negative index change of −7.5x10−3 can be reached. The present results clearly illustrate the potential of this family of glasses for the fabrication of mid-infrared waveguides.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Zallen, M. L. Slade, and A. T. Ward, “Lattice vibrations and interlayer interactions in crystalline As2S3 and As2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 3(12), 4257–4273 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Kawamoto and C. Kawashima, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on short-range structure of vitreous GeS,” Mater. Res. Bull. 17(12), 1511–1516 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, and C. Baker, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in subwavelength diameter As2Se3 chacogenide wires,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2886–2888 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kohoutek, X. Yan, T. W. Shiosaka, S. N. Yannopoulos, A. Chrissanthopoulos, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Enhanced Raman gain of Ge–Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glass for highly nonlinear microstructured optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2284–2290 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

T. Anderson, L. Petit, N. Carlie, J. Choi, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, “Femtosecond laser photo respond of Ge23Sb7S70 films,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20081–20098 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Romanova and A. I. Konyukhov, “Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of modification of material by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 104(5), 784–790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Singh, A. K. Singh, and N. S. Saxena, “Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of Se90In10 bulk chalcogenide glass,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(2), 159–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Makovicky, “Crystal structures of sulfides and other chalcogenides,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 61(1), 7–125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (5)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 42–43 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, “The mean polarizability and density of glasses,” Physica B 229(3-4), 217–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1989 (1)

G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Y. Kawamoto and C. Kawashima, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on short-range structure of vitreous GeS,” Mater. Res. Bull. 17(12), 1511–1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. Zallen, M. L. Slade, and A. T. Ward, “Lattice vibrations and interlayer interactions in crystalline As2S3 and As2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 3(12), 4257–4273 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R.

R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, and C. Baker, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in subwavelength diameter As2Se3 chacogenide wires,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2886–2888 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ampem-Lassen, E.

Anderson, T.

Arndt, J.

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, “The mean polarizability and density of glasses,” Physica B 229(3-4), 217–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

Barty, A.

Baumberg, J. J.

Baxter, G. W.

Bellouard, Y.

Bolger, J. A.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boolchand, P.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brawley, G. A.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burattini, E.

G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bychkov, E.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Carlie, N.

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Chrissanthopoulos, A.

Dalba, G.

G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Dragomir, N. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Fornasini, P.

G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

García, J. F.

Giunta, G.

G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Grasselli, R.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grothaus, J.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Hazle, M.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

Hewak, D. W.

Hirao, K.

Hô, N.

Homoelle, D.

Hu, J.

Huang, L.

Hughes, M. A.

Huntington, S. T.

Huser, T.

Jia, B.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalal, M.

Kawamoto, Y.

Y. Kawamoto and C. Kawashima, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on short-range structure of vitreous GeS,” Mater. Res. Bull. 17(12), 1511–1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, C.

Y. Kawamoto and C. Kawashima, “Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on short-range structure of vitreous GeS,” Mater. Res. Bull. 17(12), 1511–1516 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Kimerling, L.

Kitamura, K.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kohoutek, T.

Konyukhov, A. I.

E. A. Romanova and A. I. Konyukhov, “Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of modification of material by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 104(5), 784–790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Laporta, P.

Le Coq, D.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lezal, D.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. S.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Lopez, C.

Louchev, O. A.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makovicky, E.

E. Makovicky, “Crystal structures of sulfides and other chalcogenides,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 61(1), 7–125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Masselin, P.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Messaddeq, S. H.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Nguyen, N. T.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

Ohishi, Y.

Osellame, R.

Petit, L.

Polli, D.

Rajesh, S.

Ramponi, R.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S.

Rivero, C.

Roberts, A.

Rochette, M.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, and C. Baker, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in subwavelength diameter As2Se3 chacogenide wires,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2886–2888 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanova, E. A.

E. A. Romanova and A. I. Konyukhov, “Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of modification of material by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 104(5), 784–790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, N. S.

K. Singh, A. K. Singh, and N. S. Saxena, “Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of Se90In10 bulk chalcogenide glass,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(2), 159–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Shiosaka, T. W.

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K. Singh, A. K. Singh, and N. S. Saxena, “Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of Se90In10 bulk chalcogenide glass,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(2), 159–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

K. Singh, A. K. Singh, and N. S. Saxena, “Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of Se90In10 bulk chalcogenide glass,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(2), 159–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slade, M. L.

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Smith, C.

Streltsov, A. M.

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G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, “The mean polarizability and density of glasses,” Physica B 229(3-4), 217–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tenhover, M.

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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H. Ticha´ and L. Tichy´, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

Tichy´, L.

H. Ticha´ and L. Tichy´, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

Tikhomirov, V. K.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Zallen, M. L. Slade, and A. T. Ward, “Lattice vibrations and interlayer interactions in crystalline As2S3 and As2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 3(12), 4257–4273 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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R. Zallen, M. L. Slade, and A. T. Ward, “Lattice vibrations and interlayer interactions in crystalline As2S3 and As2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 3(12), 4257–4273 (1971).
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Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “Photosensitivity at 1550nm and Bragg grating inscription in As2Se3 chalcogenide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061109 (2011).
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Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Singh, A. K. Singh, and N. S. Saxena, “Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity and effective thermal diffusivity of Se90In10 bulk chalcogenide glass,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 8(2), 159–162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. A. Brawley, V. G. Ta’eed, J. A. Bolger, J. S. Sanghera, I. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Strong photoinduced Bragg gratings in arsenic selenide optical fibre using transverse holographic method,” Electron. Lett. 44(14), 846–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Densification of silica glass induced by 0.8 and 1.5 μm intense femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. Dalba, P. Fornasini, G. Giunta, and E. Burattini, “XRD and EXAFS study of the local structure in some non-crystalline Sb-S compounds,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107(2-3), 261–270 (1989).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ticha´ and L. Tichy´, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its application to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, O. A. Louchev, and K. Kitamura, “Femtosecond laser ablation of chalcogenide glass: explosive formation of nano-fibers against thermo-capillary growth of micro-spheres,” Nanotechnology 17(19), 4802–4805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (10)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
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R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, and C. Baker, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in subwavelength diameter As2Se3 chacogenide wires,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2886–2888 (2011).
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A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, G. W. Baxter, N. M. Dragomir, and S. T. Huntington, “Refractive-index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry by use of quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(23), 2061–2063 (2002).
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D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1311–1313 (1999).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, and E. Bychkov, “Refractive index variations induced by femtosecond laser direct writing in the bulk of As2S3 glass at high repetition rate,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 872–876 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. A. Romanova and A. I. Konyukhov, “Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of modification of material by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Spectrosc. 104(5), 784–790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Zallen, M. L. Slade, and A. T. Ward, “Lattice vibrations and interlayer interactions in crystalline As2S3 and As2Se3,” Phys. Rev. B 3(12), 4257–4273 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Boolchand, J. Grothaus, M. Tenhover, M. Hazle, and R. Grasselli, “Structure of GeS2 glass: spectroscopic evidence for broken chemical order,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5421–5434 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, V. K. Tikhomirov, Y. Messaddeq, D. Lezal, and M. S. Li, “Light-induced relief gratings and a mechanism of metastable light-induced expansion in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63(22), 224203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, “The mean polarizability and density of glasses,” Physica B 229(3-4), 217–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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E. Makovicky, “Crystal structures of sulfides and other chalcogenides,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 61(1), 7–125 (2006).
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Other (1)

E. Romanova, A. Konyukhov, S. Muraviov, and A. Adrianov, “Thermal diffusion in chalcogenide glass irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” 12th International conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), DOI 10.1109/ICTON.2010.5549182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of a 10 mm thick sample of GeS2.2

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radial refractive index change profiles at, (a) constant translation speed of 0.05mm/s for different pulse energies and, (b) constant pulse energy of 600nJ for different translation speeds. Typical microscope pictures of the corresponding patterns are presented (bottom) for each case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index changes at the center of the exposed area as a function of pulse energy for different translation speeds.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diameters of the refractive index structures photoinduced in the GeS2.2 glass samples as a function of the input pulse energy for different translation speeds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diameter of the refractive index structures photoinduced in the GeS2.2 glass sample as a function of the translation speed for different input pulse energies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross sections of the photoinduced structures obtained at pulse energy of 500 nJ and translation speeds of (a) 0.05, (b) 0.5 and (c) 5 mm/s.

Equations (2)

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F= 4 E p τ rep π w y v
n 2 1 n 2 +1 = 4π 3 Nα

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