Abstract

In this work we present a stand-alone, portable system for high resolution real-time THz imaging. The total weight of the apparatus is less than 15 kg and its physical dimension is of ~(65 cm)3. A quantum cascade laser emitting at 3.4 THz laser based on a third-order distributed feedback cavity is used as source. It operates in continuous-wave at 50 K with more than 1 mW output power and less than 300 mW of power consumption. High resolution real-time THz imaging is reported: resolution of 2.5 times the wavelength is demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Zhong, A. Redo-Sanchez, and X.-C. Zhang, “Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9130–9141 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, vol. 85 2003).
  10. A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liu, Y. L. Hor, K. Su, R. B. Barat, D. E. Gary, Z.-H. Michalopoulou, I. Zorych, J. F. Federici, and D. Zimdars, “Rapid-phase modulation of terahertz radiation for high-speed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1593–1595 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. N. Zinov’ev and A. V. Andrianov, “Confocal terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, “Room temperature continuous wave milliwatt terahertz source,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27112–27117 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared microbolometer camera,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 440–442 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H. W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10177–10187 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Dean, N. K. Saat, S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Dual-frequency imaging using an electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20631–20641 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Bolduc, M. Terroux, B. Tremblay, L. Marchese, E. Savard, M. Doucet, H. Oulachgar, C. Alain, H. Jerominek, and A. Bergeron, “Noise-equivalent power characterization of an uncooled microbolometer-based THz imaging camera” Proc. of SPIE, 8023, art. no 80230C, 201, 2011.
  23. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (6)

P. Dean, N. K. Saat, S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Dual-frequency imaging using an electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20631–20641 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Zinov’ev and A. V. Andrianov, “Confocal terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (4)

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, A. Redo-Sanchez, and X.-C. Zhang, “Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9130–9141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrianov, A. V.

N. N. Zinov’ev and A. V. Andrianov, “Confocal terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baraniuk, R. G.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R. B.

Beck, M.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Behnken, B. N.

Bitzer, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, A.

Castellano, F.

Chamberlin, D. R.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charan, K.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Davies, A. G.

Dean, P.

Faist, J.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Behnken, G. Karunasiri, D. R. Chamberlin, P. R. Robrish, and J. Faist, “Real-time imaging using a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser and uncooled infrared microbolometer camera,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 440–442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

Federici, J. F.

Fischer, B. M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallo, P.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D. E.

Giehler, M.

Giovannini, M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

Greiner-Bär, M.

Harris, G.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatami, F.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hey, R.

Hor, Y. L.

Hoyler, N.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübers, H. W.

Hwang, J.-S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Kapon, E.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karunasiri, G.

Kawase, K.

Kelly, K. F.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Kim, S. M.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, D.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Koch, S. W.

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurian, A. W.

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-I.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

P. Dean, N. K. Saat, S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Dual-frequency imaging using an electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20631–20641 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michalopoulou, Z.-H.

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Ogawa, Y.

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlov, S. G.

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Redo-Sanchez, A.

Reno, J.

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

Robrish, P. R.

Rudra, A.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saat, N. K.

Salih, M.

Scalari, G.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

Schrottke, L.

Semenov, A. D.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A. M.

Su, K.

Sun, W.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takhar, D.

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terazzi, R.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Wienold, M.

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yarborough, J. M.

Ye, J.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Zhang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

Zimdars, D.

Zinov’ev, N. N.

N. N. Zinov’ev and A. V. Andrianov, “Confocal terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zorych, I.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, “Compact continuous-wave subterahertz system for inspection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 054105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kim, F. Hatami, J. S. Harris, A. W. Kurian, J. Ford, D. King, G. Scalari, M. Giovannini, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, and G. Harris, “Biomedical terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Zinov’ev and A. V. Andrianov, “Confocal terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, K. Charan, D. Takhar, K. F. Kelly, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “A single-pixel terahertz imaging system based on compressed sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.1-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 X 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single quantum well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

H. Zhong, A. Redo-Sanchez, and X.-C. Zhang, “Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9130–9141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, J. M. Yarborough, J. V. Moloney, M. Fallahi, M. Koch, and S. W. Koch, “Room temperature continuous wave milliwatt terahertz source,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27112–27117 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, C. Zhang, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X. C. Zhang, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express 17, 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3331–3339 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Richter, M. Greiner-Bär, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, M. Wienold, L. Schrottke, M. Giehler, R. Hey, H. T. Grahn, and H. W. Hübers, “A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10177–10187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dean, N. K. Saat, S. P. Khanna, M. Salih, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Dual-frequency imaging using an electrically tunable terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20631–20641 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

D. Mittleman, Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, vol. 85 2003).

M. Bolduc, M. Terroux, B. Tremblay, L. Marchese, E. Savard, M. Doucet, H. Oulachgar, C. Alain, H. Jerominek, and A. Bergeron, “Noise-equivalent power characterization of an uncooled microbolometer-based THz imaging camera” Proc. of SPIE, 8023, art. no 80230C, 201, 2011.

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (3156 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1928 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (896 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (782 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (8413 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photos of the stand-alone system for THz imaging. a) Detailed vision of all the elements. b) Packed version operating in transmission mode

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Measured optical power versus electrical power dissipation of the THz quantum cascade laser at different temperatures. Inset: measured frequency emission. b) Measured beam pattern of the laser. A FWHM of 22° X 30° for the laser emission is demonstrated

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-frame THz imaging of some shapes imprinted in different kinds of plastics (details presented in the first column of the figure). The real time imaging of the second row is reported in the file Media 1. The last row presents a characterization of the system resolution with 10 slits of varying widths cut out on a metal piece (widths are, from left to right: 1mm, 500 −370-280-210-160-120-90-70-50 µm). The three THz images are relative to the 1 mm and 0.5 mm, the 370-280-210-160 µm and the 160-120-90-70-50 µm. On the top: schematic of the experimental set-up

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

First column: Images in the visible. Second and third columns: single-frame THz transmission images. First row: metallic blade in polystyrene. Second row: Lead pencil in polystyrene. Third row: Water droplets in high- density polyethylene bottle. Fourth row: writing “ETH” inside a DVD box. The real time imaging is in the multimedia: Media 2, Media 3, Media 4, and Media 5, respectively. On the top: schematic of the experimental set-up

Metrics