Abstract

The integration of nano structures with opto-electronic devices has many potential applications. It allows the coupling of more light into or out of the device while decreasing the size of the device itself. Such devices are reported in the VIS and NIR regions. However, making plasmonic structures for the UV region is still a challenge. Here, we report on a UV nano-antenna integrated metal semiconductor metal (MSM) photodetector based on GaN. We designed and fabricated Al grating structures. Well defined plasmonic resonances were measured in the reflectance spectra. Optimized grating structure integrated photodetectors exhibited more than sevenfold photocurrent enhancement. Finite difference time domain simulations revealed that both geometrical and plasmonic effects played role in photocurrent enhancement.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8505–8514 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 686–688 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, F. J. Bartoli, and Ieee, “UV extraordinary optical transmission through nanoslits,” in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Leos Annual Meeting Conference, 1 and 2 (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 154–155.
  11. J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2613–2621 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1985).
  25. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8505–8514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 686–688 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akbari, A.

A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8505–8514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K.

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alloschery, O.

F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2613–2621 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide Schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8505–8514 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Butun, S.

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

Collin, S.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, J.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujikata, J.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q. Q.

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, G.

F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2613–2621 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gokkavas, M.

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grote, R.

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hopler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kalkum, F.

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.

Lezec, H. J.

F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2613–2621 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lysak, V. V.

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makita, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, V.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohammadizia, A.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nabet, B.

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neogi, A.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nevière, M.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Dwyer, C.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozcelik, S.

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, M. K.

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelouard, J.-L.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, R.

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shackleford, J. A.

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spanier, J. E.

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tait, R. N.

Tan, C. L.

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teissier, R.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

H. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Viaris de Lesegno, B.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kalkum, G. Gay, O. Alloschery, J. Weiner, H. J. Lezec, Y. Xie, and M. Mansuripur, “Surface-wave interferometry on single subwavelength slit-groove structures fabricated on gold films,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2613–2621 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wurtz, G. A.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. B.

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Zayats, A. V.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L. C.

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Akbari and P. Berini, “Schottky contact surface-plasmon detector integrated with an asymmetric metal stripe waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J.-L. Pelouard, “Efficient light absorption in metal–semiconductor–metal nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 194–196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shackleford, R. Grote, M. Currie, J. E. Spanier, and B. Nabet, “Integrated plasmonic lens photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lin, A. Mohammadizia, A. Neogi, H. Morkoc, and M. Ohtsu, “Surface plasmon enhanced UV emission in AlGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes based on semi-insulating GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, and F. J. Bartoli, “UV plasmonic structures: direct observations of UV extraordinary optical transmission and localized field enhancement through nanoslits,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(4), 245–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

H. Yu, M. K. Ozturk, S. Ozcelik, and E. Ozbay, “A study of semi-insulating GaN grown on AlN buffer/sapphire substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 293(2), 273–277 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), L364–L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O'Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu and P. Lalanne, “Microscopic theory of the extraordinary optical transmission,” Nature 452(7188), 728–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

C. L. Tan, V. V. Lysak, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “Absorption enhancement of 980 nm MSM photodetector with a plasmonic grating structure,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1763–1767 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

E. Popov, M. Nevière, S. Enoch, and R. Reinisch, “Theory of light transmission through subwavelength periodic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 62(23), 16100–16108 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Q. Q. Gan, L. C. Zhou, V. Dierolf, F. J. Bartoli, and Ieee, “UV extraordinary optical transmission through nanoslits,” in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Leos Annual Meeting Conference, 1 and 2 (IEEE, New York, 2009), pp. 154–155.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Numerical simulations of the designed grating structures. (a) Calculated SPP dispersion relation of a grating/air interface for different metals. Here the grating period is 300 nm. The shaded region represents the absorption of GaN in vertical and the illumination cone of the lens in our setup in horizontal. (b) The spectral absorption enhancement results for different gating materials calculated by FDTD simulations. Simulation parameters were as follows; Slit width: 100 nm, base height: 75 nm and grove height: 35 nm. (c) and (d) are comparing the overall normalized E-field intensity under the slits with and without the gratings at a resonant and an off-resonant excitation. (The color bar applies to all)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual drawing of nano-structured MSM photodetector is given in (a). The lens that we used in the measurements is illustrated. (b) A dark field microscopy image of the fabricated photodetector. (c) A sketch illustrating the width of the illumination beam in spectral (w1) and laser (w2) measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of the plasmonic Al gratings fabricated on sapphire. (a) Spectral reflectance measurements of the Al gratings with different periods. (b) Dark-field microscopy image of a sample with grating period of 300 nm period. (c) Dark-field microscopy image of a sample without the grating. The data in (a) is obtained by dividing the reflection data of a grating by the data of the reference. Both the reference and the grating samples have slits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscopy images of the interdigitated MSM contacts (a) without the grating and (b) with the grating fabricated on top are shown. The longer and the shorter scale bars indicate 3 µm and 200 nm respectively. The measured dark current-voltage characteristics and the measured spectral photocurrent comparison are displayed in (c) and (d) respectively. The corresponding spectral enhancement is shown in (e). The dots are measurements and the solid line is the FDTD simulations of the fabricated device.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k x = k 0 sinθ± 2πl Λ = k 0 ε ε d ε+ ε d l=1,2,...
L i = 1 2 k x ''

Metrics