Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).
  2. L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).
  3. H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).
  4. A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).
  5. B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).
  6. O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
  7. E. Modone and G. Roba, “OH reduction in preforms by isotope exchange,” Electron. Lett. 17(21), 815–817 (1981).
  8. B. D. Evans and G. H. Sigel, “Radiation resistant fiber optic materials and waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 22(6), 2462 –2467 (1975).
  9. M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).
  10. P. Myslinski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of Erbium-Doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(1), 112–120 (1997).
  11. D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).
  12. A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, and E. Burov, “Amplifying optical fiber and production method,” (2010). Patent US 2010135627.
  13. A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.
  14. E. Régnier, A. Pastouret, and E. Burov, “Ionizing radiation-resistant optical fiber amplifier,” (2010). Patent US2010142033.
  15. S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
  16. E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).
  17. J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).
  18. B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).
  19. D. Derickson, Fiber optic test and measurements, ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1998).
  20. D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

2010 (1)

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

2009 (2)

D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).

A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).

2007 (2)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

2000 (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

1998 (1)

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

1997 (1)

P. Myslinski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of Erbium-Doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(1), 112–120 (1997).

1996 (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

1981 (1)

E. Modone and G. Roba, “OH reduction in preforms by isotope exchange,” Electron. Lett. 17(21), 815–817 (1981).

1975 (1)

B. D. Evans and G. H. Sigel, “Radiation resistant fiber optic materials and waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 22(6), 2462 –2467 (1975).

Achten, F.

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Baney, D. M.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

Berghmans, F.

A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

Blackmore, E.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Boch, J.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Bogatyrjov, V. A.

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

Boivin, D.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

Boukenter, A.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Brichard, B.

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

Burov, E.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

E. Régnier, A. Pastouret, and E. Burov, “Ionizing radiation-resistant optical fiber amplifier,” (2010). Patent US2010142033.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, and E. Burov, “Amplifying optical fiber and production method,” (2010). Patent US 2010135627.

Cadier, B.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Cannas, M.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Caplan, D.

D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).

Cavani, O.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

Chluda, C.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Collet, C.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

David, J.-P.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber optic test and measurements, ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

Dusseau, L.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Evans, B. D.

B. D. Evans and G. H. Sigel, “Radiation resistant fiber optic materials and waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 22(6), 2462 –2467 (1975).

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Felix, J. A.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Ferlet-Cavrois, V.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Fernandez, A. F.

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

Flammer, I.

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

Fohn, T.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

Gallion, P.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

Gilard, O.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Girard, S.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

Gonnet, C.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, and E. Burov, “Amplifying optical fiber and production method,” (2010). Patent US 2010135627.

Gooijer, F.

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Gusarov, A.

A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Henschel, H.

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

Hotoleanu, M.

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Klyamkin, S. N.

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

Köhn, O.

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

Krichhof, J.

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

Kuyt, G.

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

Laurent, A.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Lempereur, S.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

Marcandella, C.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Meunier, J.-P.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Modone, E.

E. Modone and G. Roba, “OH reduction in preforms by isotope exchange,” Electron. Lett. 17(21), 815–817 (1981).

Myara, M.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Myslinski, P.

P. Myslinski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of Erbium-Doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(1), 112–120 (1997).

Ooms, H.

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

Ouerdane, Y.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Pastouret, A.

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

E. Régnier, A. Pastouret, and E. Burov, “Ionizing radiation-resistant optical fiber amplifier,” (2010). Patent US2010142033.

A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, and E. Burov, “Amplifying optical fiber and production method,” (2010). Patent US 2010135627.

Pinsard, E.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Régnier, E.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

E. Régnier, A. Pastouret, and E. Burov, “Ionizing radiation-resistant optical fiber amplifier,” (2010). Patent US2010142033.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Roba, G.

E. Modone and G. Roba, “OH reduction in preforms by isotope exchange,” Electron. Lett. 17(21), 815–817 (1981).

Robin, T.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Robinson, B.

D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).

Schmidt, H. U.

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

Schwank, J. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Shaneyflet, M. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Sigel, G. H.

B. D. Evans and G. H. Sigel, “Radiation resistant fiber optic materials and waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 22(6), 2462 –2467 (1975).

Signoret, P.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Sotom, M.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

Stevens, M.

D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).

Thienpont, H.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Thienpont, M.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Tomashuk, A. L.

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

Tortech, B.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Troussellier, L.

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Tucker, R. S.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

Uffelen, M. V.

A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

Unger, S.

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

Vivona, M.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Modone and G. Roba, “OH reduction in preforms by isotope exchange,” Electron. Lett. 17(21), 815–817 (1981).

European Conference on Optical Communication (1)

D. Caplan, M. Stevens, and B. Robinson, “Free-space laser communications: global communications and beyond,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (2009).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (3)

H. Henschel, O. Köhn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Krichhof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998).

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Régnier, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyflet, J. A. Felix, E. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical Fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).

B. D. Evans and G. H. Sigel, “Radiation resistant fiber optic materials and waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 22(6), 2462 –2467 (1975).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

P. Myslinski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of Erbium-Doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(1), 112–120 (1997).

A. Gusarov, M. V. Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, M. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation Sensitivity of EDFAs Based on Highly Er-Doped Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

B. Brichard, A. L. Tomashuk, V. A. Bogatyrjov, A. F. Fernandez, S. N. Klyamkin, S. Girard, and F. Berghmans, “Reduction of the radiation-induced absorption in hydrogenated pure silica core fibres irradiated in situ with gamma-rays,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 466–472 (2007).

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion, and R. S. Tucker, “Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 122–154 (2000).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Boivin, T. Fohn, E. Burov, A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, O. Cavani, C. Collet, and S. Lempereur, “Quenching investigation on new erbium doped fibers using MCVD nanoparticle doping process,” in Proc. SPIE,  7580, 75802B–1 (2010).

Other (9)

A. Pastouret, C. Gonnet, and E. Burov, “Amplifying optical fiber and production method,” (2010). Patent US 2010135627.

A. Pastouret, E. Burov, D. Boivin, C. Collet, and O. Cavani, “Amplifying optical fiber and method of manufacturing,” (2010). Patent US 2010118388.

E. Régnier, A. Pastouret, and E. Burov, “Ionizing radiation-resistant optical fiber amplifier,” (2010). Patent US2010142033.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, E. Pinsard, A. Laurent, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Durcissement aux radiations de fibres optiques dopées terres rares et d’amplificateurs à fibres optiques,” in Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée (2010).

L. Troussellier, C. Chluda, M. Myara, J. Boch, L. Dusseau, P. Signoret, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and J.-P. David, “Dose rate effect on aluminium-codoped erbium fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Insulators (2007).

E. Régnier, I. Flammer, S. Girard, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, and G. Kuyt, “Radiation-induced attenuation at IR wavelength in silica based optical fibers,” in Radiation Effects on Components and Systems (2006).

J. Thomas, M. Myara, L. Troussellier, E. Régnier, E. Burov, O. Gilard, M. Sotom, and P. Signoret, “Experimental demonstration of the switching dose-rate method on doped optical fbers,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effet in erbium-doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

D. Derickson, Fiber optic test and measurements, ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication Process steps for nanoparticules erbium-doped fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Irradiation set-up.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dose-normalized RIA versus the dose-rate for each tested fiber at 1550nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical Power decrease for each EDFA configuration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pre- and post- irradiation cut-back measurements performed for “NP-Si+” and “NP-Al” fibers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal + ASE spectra and noise factor evolution as a function of the dose deposit. The spectra were obtained at 1nm resolution bandwidth (RBW).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 EDFs and Associated EDFA Parameters

Equations (1)

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N F = 2 ρ A S E h ν G

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