Abstract

Modern adaptive optics (AO) systems for large telescopes require tomographic techniques to reconstruct the phase aberrations induced by the turbulent atmosphere along a line of sight to a target which is angularly separated from the guide sources that are used to sample the atmosphere. Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is one such technique. Here, we present a method which uses an artificial neural network (ANN) to reconstruct the target phase given off-axis references sources. We compare our ANN method with a standard least squares type matrix multiplication method and to the learn and apply method developed for the CANARY MOAO instrument. The ANN is trained with a large range of possible turbulent layer positions and therefore does not require any input of the optical turbulence profile. It is therefore less susceptible to changing conditions than some existing methods. We also exploit the non-linear response of the ANN to make it more robust to noisy centroid measurements than other linear techniques.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

2010 (4)

F. Vidal, E. Gendron, and G. Rousset, “Tomography approach for multi-object adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(11), 253–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Misra and I. Saha, “Artificial neural networks in hardware: A survey of two decades of progress,” Neurocomputing 74(1–3), 239–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Thiébaut and M. Tallon, “Fast minimum variance wavefront reconstruction for extremely large telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(5), 1046–1059 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, F. J. Juez, R. Myers, A. Guesalaga, and F. Lasheras, “Modeling a MEMS deformable mirror using non-parametric estimation techniques,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21356–21369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. J. Weddell and R. Y. Webb, “A Neural Network Architecture for the Reconstruction of Turbulence Degraded Point Spread Functions,” in Proc. Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, pp. 103–108 (2007).

F. Assémat, E. Gendron, and F. Hammer, “The FALCON concept: multi-object adaptive optics and atmospheric tomography for integral field spectroscopy – principles and performance on an 8-m telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 287–312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Weddell and R. Y. Webb, “Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks for Centroid Prediction in Astronomy,” inProc. of the Sixth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, pp. 68 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Huarng and T. H.-K. Yu, “The application of neural networks to forecast fuzzy time series,” Physica A,  363(2), 481–491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, “Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349(3), 1009–1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337(1), 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, “Adaptive Optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 268, 39–61 (1996).

D. A. Montera, M. C. Welsh, B. M. Roggemann, and D. W. Ruck, “Processing wave-front-sensors slope measurements using artificial neural networks,” Appl. Opt. 35(21), 4238–4251 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

J. W. Wild, E. J. Kibblewhite, and R. Vuilleumier, “Sparse matrix wave-front estimators for adaptive-optics systems for large ground-based telescopes,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 955–957 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Denton, “How good are neural networks for causal forecasting?” J. Bus. Forecast. Methods Syst. 14(2), 17–20 (1995).

M. Lloyd-Hart and P. McGuire, “Spatio-temporal prediction for adaptive optics wavefront reconstructors,” in Proc. European Southern Observatory Conf. on Adaptive Optics, pp. 95–102 (1995).

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. G. Sandler, T. K. Barrett, D. A. Palmer, R. Q. Fugate, and W. J. Wild, “Use of a neural network to control an adaptive optics system for an astronomical telescope,” Nature 351, 300–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, P. Wizinowich, M. Lloyd-Hart, and D. Sandler, “Adaptive optics for array telescopes using neural-network techniques,” Nature 348, 221–224 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–217 (1989).

1986 (1)

D. E. Rumelhart, G. E. Hinton, and R. J. Williams, “Learning representations by back-propagating errors,” Nature 323, 533–536 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. P. Angel, P. Wizinowich, M. Lloyd-Hart, and D. Sandler, “Adaptive optics for array telescopes using neural-network techniques,” Nature 348, 221–224 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Assémat, F.

F. Assémat, E. Gendron, and F. Hammer, “The FALCON concept: multi-object adaptive optics and atmospheric tomography for integral field spectroscopy – principles and performance on an 8-m telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 287–312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, T. K.

D. G. Sandler, T. K. Barrett, D. A. Palmer, R. Q. Fugate, and W. J. Wild, “Use of a neural network to control an adaptive optics system for an astronomical telescope,” Nature 351, 300–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Basden, A.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–217 (1989).

Bottaci, L.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brangier, M.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Buat, V.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Burgarella, D.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Butterley, T.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Carrasco, E.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cayatte, V.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Chemla, F.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Colucci, D.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.

Conan, J.-M.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Courbin, F.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Cruz, D. X.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, H.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Dee, K.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Dekany, R.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Denton, J. W.

J. W. Denton, “How good are neural networks for causal forecasting?” J. Bus. Forecast. Methods Syst. 14(2), 17–20 (1995).

Dickson, C.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Dipper, N.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Drew, P. J.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, C.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Duthie, G. S.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Farouk, R.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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T. Fusco, J. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2527–2538 (2001).
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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

F. Vidal, E. Gendron, and G. Rousset, “Tomography approach for multi-object adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(11), 253–264 (2010).
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F. Assémat, E. Gendron, and F. Hammer, “The FALCON concept: multi-object adaptive optics and atmospheric tomography for integral field spectroscopy – principles and performance on an 8-m telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 287–312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Geng, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Gratador, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Gratadour, D.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Greenaway, A.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Guesalaga, A.

D. Guzmán, F. J. Juez, R. Myers, A. Guesalaga, and F. Lasheras, “Modeling a MEMS deformable mirror using non-parametric estimation techniques,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21356–21369 (2010).
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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Guinouard, I.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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Guzman, D.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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Hadfield, M. B.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
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F. Assémat, E. Gendron, and F. Hammer, “The FALCON concept: multi-object adaptive optics and atmospheric tomography for integral field spectroscopy – principles and performance on an 8-m telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 287–312 (2007).
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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Hartley, J. E.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
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E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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Kellerer, A.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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Lançon, A.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
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E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Macintyre, I. M.

L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

McCarthy, D.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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Misra, J.

J. Misra and I. Saha, “Artificial neural networks in hardware: A survey of two decades of progress,” Neurocomputing 74(1–3), 239–255 (2010).
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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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L. Bottaci, P. J. Drew, J. E. Hartley, M. B. Hadfield, R. Farouk, P. W. Lee, I. M. Macintyre, G. S. Duthie, and J. R. Monson, “Artificial neural networks applied to outcome prediction for colorectal cancer patients in separate institutions,” The Lancet 350(9076), 469–472 (1997).
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Morris, T.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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Mouhcine, M.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L. M.

Myers, R.

D. Guzmán, F. J. Juez, R. Myers, A. Guesalaga, and F. Lasheras, “Modeling a MEMS deformable mirror using non-parametric estimation techniques,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21356–21369 (2010).
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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Myers, R. M.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Palmer, D. A.

D. G. Sandler, T. K. Barrett, D. A. Palmer, R. Q. Fugate, and W. J. Wild, “Use of a neural network to control an adaptive optics system for an astronomical telescope,” Nature 351, 300–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perret, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Prieur, J. L.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
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Rigaud, F.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Roggemann, B. M.

Rouan, D.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

F. Vidal, E. Gendron, and G. Rousset, “Tomography approach for multi-object adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(11), 253–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
[CrossRef]

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D. E. Rumelhart, G. E. Hinton, and R. J. Williams, “Learning representations by back-propagating errors,” Nature 323, 533–536 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saha, I.

J. Misra and I. Saha, “Artificial neural networks in hardware: A survey of two decades of progress,” Neurocomputing 74(1–3), 239–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, D.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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J. R. P. Angel, P. Wizinowich, M. Lloyd-Hart, and D. Sandler, “Adaptive optics for array telescopes using neural-network techniques,” Nature 348, 221–224 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, D. G.

D. G. Sandler, T. K. Barrett, D. A. Palmer, R. Q. Fugate, and W. J. Wild, “Use of a neural network to control an adaptive optics system for an astronomical telescope,” Nature 351, 300–302 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sayède, F.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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Sevin, A.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Skvarc, J.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Stobie, B.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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Talbot, G.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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Todd, S.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Vedrenne, N.

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Vernin, J.

R. Avila, E. Carrasco, F. Ibañez, J. Vernin, J. L. Prieur, and D. X. Cruz, “Generalized SCIDAR Measurements at San Pedro Mártir. II. Wind Profile Statistics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 503–515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

F. Vidal, E. Gendron, and G. Rousset, “Tomography approach for multi-object adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(11), 253–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

Vuilleumier, R.

Webb, R. Y.

S. J. Weddell and R. Y. Webb, “A Neural Network Architecture for the Reconstruction of Turbulence Degraded Point Spread Functions,” in Proc. Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, pp. 103–108 (2007).

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Weddell, S. J.

S. J. Weddell and R. Y. Webb, “A Neural Network Architecture for the Reconstruction of Turbulence Degraded Point Spread Functions,” in Proc. Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, pp. 103–108 (2007).

S. J. Weddell and R. Y. Webb, “Dynamic Artificial Neural Networks for Centroid Prediction in Astronomy,” inProc. of the Sixth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, pp. 68 (2006).
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Welsh, M. C.

Wild, J. W.

Wild, W. J.

D. G. Sandler, T. K. Barrett, D. A. Palmer, R. Q. Fugate, and W. J. Wild, “Use of a neural network to control an adaptive optics system for an astronomical telescope,” Nature 351, 300–302 (1991).
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Williams, R. J.

D. E. Rumelhart, G. E. Hinton, and R. J. Williams, “Learning representations by back-propagating errors,” Nature 323, 533–536 (1986).
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Wilson, R. W.

R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337(1), 103–108 (2002).
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R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, “Adaptive Optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 268, 39–61 (1996).

Wittman, D.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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Wizinowich, P.

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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Younger, E.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

T. Morris, Z. Hubert, R. Myers, E. Gendron, A. Longmore, G. Rousset, G. Talbot, T. Fusco, N. Dipper, F. Vidal, D. Henry, D. Gratadour, T. Butterley, F. Chemla, D. Guzman, P. Laporte, E. Younger, A. Kellerer, M. Harrison, M. Marteaud, D. Geng, A. Basden, A. Guesalaga, C. Dunlop, S. Todd, C. Robert, K. Dee, C. Dickson, N. Vedrenne, A. Greenaway, B. Stobie, H. Dalgarno, and J. Skvarc, “CANARY: The NGS/LGS MOAO demonstrator for EAGLE,” 1st AO4ELT conference p. 08003 (2010).

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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, L. Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, and F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON Concept: Multi-Object Spectroscopy Combined with MCAO in Near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI Instrumentation, J. Bergeron and G. Monnet, eds.(Springer-Verlag, 2002), p. 139.
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. M. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratador, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, and E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astron. Astrophys. L2(529) (2011).

Astrophys. J. (1)

M. Lloyd-Hart, P. Wizinowich, B. McLeod, D. Wittman, D. Colucci, R. Dekany, D. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, and D. Sandler, “First results of an on-line adaptive optics system with atmospheric wavefront sensing by an artifical neural network,” Astrophys. J. 390(1), L41–L44 (1992).
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F. Vidal, E. Gendron, and G. Rousset, “Tomography approach for multi-object adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 27(11), 253–264 (2010).
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Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (4)

R. W. Wilson, “SLODAR: measuring optical turbulence altitude with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337(1), 103–108 (2002).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Topological diagram of the light cones for three guide stars and one target for a 4.2 m telescope and guide stars equally distributed on a ring of radius 30 arcseonds. The target direction is shown in red, the guide stars in green and the full field of view in blue. The cut-throughs on the right are taken at 0 m, 5000 m and 10000 m. At higher altitudes the overlap of the guide stars reduces and we sample smaller areas of the target light cone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A simplified network diagram for CARMEN. The slopes from the WFS are input to the network. They are all connected to every neuron in the hidden layer by a synapse. Each neuron in the hidden layer is then connected to every output node. CARMEN will output the predicted Zernike coefficients for the target direction. Each of the synapses has a weight. At run time the inputs are injected into the network which is then processed by the different activation functions and weights generating a response. In the diagram only a few of the synapses are shown for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated PSFs (left) for test 2 (median seeing scenario). Clockwise from top left is the uncorrected PSF, LS, L+A and CARMEN tomography. The residual WFEs are 817 nm, 322 nm, 289 nm and 262 nm respectively. The azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the PSFs are shown on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Radial profiles of the simulated PSFs using the three test atmospheres ran sequentially to simulate a changing atmosphere. The residual WFE are 356 nm, 317 nm and 293 nm for LS, L+A and CARMEN reconstruction. (b) is the residual Zernike variance as a function of mode number.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arbitrary fictional seven layer turbulent profile used to test CARMENs ability to combine the response of many layers. The uncorrected WFE is 818 nm and the CARMEN residual WFE is 328 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

WFE as a function of integrated turbulence strength, r0, (a) and of the outer scale, L0, (b) using the atmospheric profile of test case 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the uncorrected and LS, L+A and CARMEN reconstructed PSFs. Note that the LS and L+A radial profiles overlap almost perfectly. (b) Residual Zernike variance for the three reconstructors with WFS shot noise.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Table of Atmospheric Parameters for the Three Test Casesa

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Table 2 Table of PSF Metrics for Each Tomographic Reconstructor and Test Scenario

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Table 3 Table of Metrics for the Three Extreme Test Cases.

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Table 4 Table of PSF Metrics for Each Tomographic Reconstructor and Test Scenario Including Shot Noise in the WFSs

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y j ( t ) = g ( x i ) = g ( i w j i y i + b j ) ,
E = 1 2 k m ( y k m d k m ) 2 ,
Δ w i j = ε E w i j = ε E x i x i w i j = ε E x i w i j j w i j y j = ε δ i y j .
δ i = E x j = i E x i x i y j y j x j = g ( x j ) i δ i w i j .

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