Abstract

With the aim of utilizing arrayed waveguide gratings for multi-object spectroscopy in the field of astronomy, we outline several ways in which standard telecommunications grade chips should be modified. In particular, by removing the parabolic-horn taper or multimode interference coupler, and injecting with an optical fiber directly, the resolving power was increased threefold from 2400 ± 200 (spectral resolution of 0.63 ± 0.2 nm) to 7000 ± 700 (0.22 ± 0.02 nm) while attaining a throughput of 77 ± 5%. More importantly, the removal of the taper enabled simultaneous off-axis injection from multiple fibers, significantly increasing the number of spectra that can be obtained at once (i.e. the observing efficiency). Here we report that ~12 fibers can be injected simultaneously within the free spectral range of our device, with a 20% reduction in resolving power for fibers placed at 0.8 mm off-centre.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N, 62690N-14 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Allington-Smith and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonic spectroscopy: defining the potential advantage,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 232–238 (2010).
  4. F. G. Watson, “A Multi-Fiber Waveguide Spectrograph for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2476, 68–74 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. G. Watson, “Waveguide Spectrographs for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1373–1378 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).
  10. P. Munoz, D. Pastor, and J. Capmany, “Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(4), 661–674 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 43–45 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. http://www.jdsu.com/en-us/Optical-Communications/Products/a-z-product-list/Pages/arrayed-waveguide-grating-100-ghz-narrowband-gaussian.aspx
  16. S. Shaklan and F. Roddier, “Coupling starlight into single-mode fiber optics,” Appl. Opt. 27(11), 2334–2338 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).
  18. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, “Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2545–2547 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1988–1994 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Laegsgaard, “Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port Photonic Lantern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4673–4678 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Allington-Smith and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonic spectroscopy: defining the potential advantage,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 232–238 (2010).

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Laegsgaard, “Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port Photonic Lantern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4673–4678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2006

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N, 62690N-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, “Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2545–2547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

1997

F. G. Watson, “Waveguide Spectrographs for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1373–1378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1990

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

Aizawa, K.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allington-Smith, J.

J. Allington-Smith and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonic spectroscopy: defining the potential advantage,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 232–238 (2010).

Amersfoort, M. R.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Baugh, C. M.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Betters, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Laegsgaard, “Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port Photonic Lantern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4673–4678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Allington-Smith and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonic spectroscopy: defining the potential advantage,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 232–238 (2010).

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Nielsen, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1988–1994 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N, 62690N-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, “Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2545–2547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, J.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Cole, S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colless, M.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couch, W.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coudé du Foresto, V.

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

Cvetojevic, N.

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, G.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Propris, R.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Driver, S. P.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Efstathiou, G.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, R. S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, S. C.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, M.

Faucherre, M.

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

Frenk, C. S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gitton, P.

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

Glazebrook, K.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, R.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Laegsgaard, “Multi-mode to single-mode conversion in a 61 port Photonic Lantern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4673–4678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, A.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N, 62690N-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

Itoh, Y.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, C.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

Kato, K.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laegsgaard, J.

Lahav, O.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

Lawrence, J. S.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, J. S. Lawrence, S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and A. Horton, “Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18643–18650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, H. P.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lewis, I.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Löhmannsröben, H. G.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lumsden, S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maack, M. D.

Maddox, S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mladenoff, J.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moody, S.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, P.

Nielsen, M. D.

Nishi, I.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

Norberg, P.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Byrne, J.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and H. Yamada, “Arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with flat spectral response,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 43–45 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastor, D.

Peacock, J. A.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Percival, W. J.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. A.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pope, B.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rajhei, A.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rambold, W.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Roth, C.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Smit, M.

M. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, W.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, C.

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

M. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watson, F. G.

F. G. Watson, “Waveguide Spectrographs for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1373–1378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Watson, “A Multi-Fiber Waveguide Spectrograph for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2476, 68–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

Yan, Y.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yi, D.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145(2), 305–310 (2000).

Electron. Lett.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution,” Electron. Lett. 26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto and A. Sugita, “Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns,” Electron. Lett. 32(18), 1661–1662 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, and C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Smit and C. van Dam, “PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 236–250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Tanaka, Y. Itoh, K. Aizawa, T. Kurokawa, and H. Tsuda, “Optical spectrum analyzer based on arrayed waveguide grating for high-speed optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 432–434 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

W. J. Percival, C. M. Baugh, J. Bland-Hawthorn, T. Bridges, R. Cannon, S. Cole, M. Colless, C. Collins, W. Couch, G. Dalton, R. De Propris, S. P. Driver, G. Efstathiou, R. S. Ellis, C. S. Frenk, K. Glazebrook, C. Jackson, O. Lahav, I. Lewis, S. Lumsden, S. Maddox, S. Moody, P. Norberg, J. A. Peacock, B. A. Peterson, W. Sutherland, and K. Taylor, “The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The power spectrum and the matter content of the universe,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327(4), 1297–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Allington-Smith and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Astrophotonic spectroscopy: defining the potential advantage,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 232–238 (2010).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. Lu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, Y. Yan, D. Wang, D. Yi, and G. Jin, “Design of flat-field arrayed waveguide grating with three stigmatic points,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 783–790 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. C. Ellis, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. S. Lawrence, J. Bryant, R. Haynes, A. Horton, S. Lee, S. Leon-Saval, H. G. Löhmannsröben, J. Mladenoff, J. O'Byrne, W. Rambold, C. Roth, and C. Trinh, “GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 773516, 773516-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lawrence, J. Bland-Hawthorn, N. Cvetojevic, R. Haynes, and N. Jovanovic, “Miniture astronomical spectrographs using arrayed waveguide gratings: Capabilities and limitations,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 773941 (2010).

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N, 62690N-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Watson, “A Multi-Fiber Waveguide Spectrograph for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2476, 68–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Watson, “Waveguide Spectrographs for Astronomy?” Proc. SPIE 2871, 1373–1378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, “PIMMS: photonic integrated multimode microspectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N, 77350N-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.jdsu.com/en-us/Optical-Communications/Products/a-z-product-list/Pages/arrayed-waveguide-grating-100-ghz-narrowband-gaussian.aspx

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of an AWG-chip configuration that has been modified for astronomical use by removing the output waveguides. The input fibers/waveguides to the far-left couple the light into the input FPZ, which, after dispersing the light, couples it into the array of closely spaced waveguides, and finally interfering it in the output FPZ forming a spectrum on the end-face of the chip we dub the ‘focal surface’. Commercially available AWG-chips typically have two AWG structures on the one chip so as to maximize the real estate of the substrate, as illustrated above. In our experiments, we use only one of the AWG structures per chip; however it is important to note that one could potentially use both structures simultaneously.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The parabolic-type tapers imaged using differential interference contrast microscopy at the input of a free propagation zone of an unmodified AWG chip. (b) The input face of the chip after polishing. The fibers are directly butt-coupled up to the free propagation zone of the chip. Comparison of the point-spread-function from the parabolic input waveguide taper and that of the direct fiber launch can be seen in (c) and (d) respectively. The intensity for both profiles is linear in arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the concurrent characterization of the chips’ point spread function and throughput efficiency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The resolving power is shown for input fiber positions across the input surface (red). The resolving power drops off for fibers placed further off centre. The throughput as a function of input fiber position is shown in black. The measurements were taken at 1540 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Efficiency across an 80 nm bandwidth for the 27th order measured in 5 nm wavelength intervals. The experimental uncertainty for all efficiency measurements presented in this plot is 5%. The fiber positioned at the centre of the FPZ is shown at the top, with progressively more position offset for subsequent fibers. The central wavelength for the order clearly shifts to longer wavelengths proportionally to off-axis fiber translation.

Metrics