Abstract

We apply collective Raman scattering to create, store and retrieve spatially multimode light in warm rubidium-87 vapors. The light is created in a spontaneous Stokes scattering process. This is accompanied by the creation of counterpart collective excitations in the atomic ensemble – the spin waves. After a certain storage time we coherently convert the spin waves into the light in deterministic anti-Stokes scattering. The whole process can be regarded as a delayed four-wave mixing which produces pairs of correlated, delayed random images. Storage of higher order spatial modes up to microseconds is possible owing to usage of a buffer gas. We study the performance of the Raman scattering, storage and retrieval of collective excitations focusing on spatial effects and the influence of decoherence caused by diffusion of rubidium atoms in different buffer gases. We quantify the number of modes created and retrieved by analyzing statistical correlations of intensity fluctuations between portions of the light scattered in the far field.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

Q. Glorieux, J. B. Clark, A. M. Marino, Z. Zhou, and P. D. Lett, “Temporally multiplexed storage of images in a gradient echo memory,” Opt. Express20, 12350–12358 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Higginbottom, B. Sparkes, M. Rancic, O. Pinel, M. Hosseini, P. Lam, and B. Buchler, “Spatial-mode storage in a gradient-echo memory,” Phys. Rev. A86, 023801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kołodyński, J. Chwedeńczuk, and W. Wasilewski, “Eigenmode description of Raman scattering in atomic vapors in the presence of decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A86, 013818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Cho, J.-E. Oh, and Y.-H. Kim, “Storage and retrieval of ghost images in hot atomic vapor,” Opt. Express20, 5809–5816 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Coherent diffusion of polaritons in atomic media,” Pre-print arXiv:1207.6748 (2012).

2011

2010

D. V. Vasilyev, I. V. Sokolov, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum volume hologram,” Phys. Rev. A81, 020302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Ruo Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon.4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Hammerer, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Jensen, W. Wasilewski, H. Krauter, T. Fernholz, B. M. Nielsen, M. Owari, M. B. Plenio, A. Serafini, M. M. Wolf, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states,” Nature Phys.7, 13–16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement,” Nature457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nature Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagating modes,” Nature Photon.3, 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J. F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H. A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams.” Science321, 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Brambilla, L. Caspani, O. Jedrkiewicz, L. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nunn, K. Reim, K. C. Lee, V. O. Lorenz, B. J. Sussman, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Jaksch, “Multimode memories in atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 260502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing.” Science321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Boyer, A. Marino, and P. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marino, V. Boyer, R. Pooser, P. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. Jones, “Delocalized correlations in twin light beams with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, “Collisional decoherence during writing and reading quantum states,” Phys. Rev. A75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of atom pairs in spontaneous four-wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening,” Phys. Rev. A76, 033806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Angular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances,” Phys. Rev. A76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C. Chou, S. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. Kimble, “Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1994

1991

K. Gibble and A. Gallagher, “Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels,” Phys. Rev. A43, 1366–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, “Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation,” Phys. Rev. A24, 1980–1993 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Akamatsu, D.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, A.

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening,” Phys. Rev. A76, 033806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arikawa, M.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of atom pairs in spontaneous four-wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bache, M.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachor, H. A.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J. F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H. A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams.” Science321, 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachor, H.-A.

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagating modes,” Nature Photon.3, 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbosa, G. A.

Ben-Kish, A.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Angular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances,” Phys. Rev. A76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boiron, D.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of atom pairs in spontaneous four-wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, V.

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement,” Nature457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marino, V. Boyer, R. Pooser, P. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. Jones, “Delocalized correlations in twin light beams with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing.” Science321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Boyer, A. Marino, and P. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

E. Brambilla, L. Caspani, O. Jedrkiewicz, L. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Ruo Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon.4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buchhave, P.

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchler, B.

D. Higginbottom, B. Sparkes, M. Rancic, O. Pinel, M. Hosseini, P. Lam, and B. Buchler, “Spatial-mode storage in a gradient-echo memory,” Phys. Rev. A86, 023801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Caspani, L.

E. Brambilla, L. Caspani, O. Jedrkiewicz, L. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chalopin, B.

Chang, H.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of atom pairs in spontaneous four-wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.-W.

Chou, C.

C. Chou, S. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. Kimble, “Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chwedenczuk, J.

J. Kołodyński, J. Chwedeńczuk, and W. Wasilewski, “Eigenmode description of Raman scattering in atomic vapors in the presence of decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A86, 013818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, J. B.

Davidson, N.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Coherent diffusion of polaritons in atomic media,” Pre-print arXiv:1207.6748 (2012).

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nature Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Angular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances,” Phys. Rev. A76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delaubert, V.

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J. F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H. A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams.” Science321, 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

B. Chalopin, F. Scazza, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Direct generation of a multi-transverse mode non-classical state of light,” Opt. Express19, 4405–4410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernholz, T.

K. Jensen, W. Wasilewski, H. Krauter, T. Fernholz, B. M. Nielsen, M. Owari, M. B. Plenio, A. Serafini, M. M. Wolf, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states,” Nature Phys.7, 13–16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, “Collisional decoherence during writing and reading quantum states,” Phys. Rev. A75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firstenberg, O.

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Coherent diffusion of polaritons in atomic media,” Pre-print arXiv:1207.6748 (2012).

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nature Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Angular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances,” Phys. Rev. A76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, A.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, A.

K. Gibble and A. Gallagher, “Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels,” Phys. Rev. A43, 1366–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatti, A.

E. Brambilla, L. Caspani, O. Jedrkiewicz, L. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genovese, M.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Ruo Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon.4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibble, K.

K. Gibble and A. Gallagher, “Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels,” Phys. Rev. A43, 1366–1380 (1991).
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Appl. Opt.

Nature

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Tunable delay of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement,” Nature457, 859–862 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. Ruo Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon.4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Janousek, K. Wagner, J.-F. Morizur, N. Treps, P. K. Lam, C. C. Harb, and H.-A. Bachor, “Optical entanglement of co-propagating modes,” Nature Photon.3, 399–402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys.

O. Firstenberg, P. London, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Elimination, reversal and directional bias of optical diffraction,” Nature Phys.5, 665–668 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jensen, W. Wasilewski, H. Krauter, T. Fernholz, B. M. Nielsen, M. Owari, M. B. Plenio, A. Serafini, M. M. Wolf, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states,” Nature Phys.7, 13–16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. III. Effects of inhomogeneous broadening,” Phys. Rev. A76, 033806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Brambilla, L. Caspani, O. Jedrkiewicz, L. Lugiato, and A. Gatti, “High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053807 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Manz, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, and J.-W. Pan, “Collisional decoherence during writing and reading quantum states,” Phys. Rev. A75, 040101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Gibble and A. Gallagher, “Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels,” Phys. Rev. A43, 1366–1380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ben-Kish, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Angular dependence of Dicke-narrowed electromagnetically induced transparency resonances,” Phys. Rev. A76, 023813 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Higginbottom, B. Sparkes, M. Rancic, O. Pinel, M. Hosseini, P. Lam, and B. Buchler, “Spatial-mode storage in a gradient-echo memory,” Phys. Rev. A86, 023801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, “Stimulated Raman scattering: unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation,” Phys. Rev. A24, 1980–1993 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Kołodyński, J. Chwedeńczuk, and W. Wasilewski, “Eigenmode description of Raman scattering in atomic vapors in the presence of decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A86, 013818 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Vasilyev, I. V. Sokolov, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum volume hologram,” Phys. Rev. A81, 020302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. Boyer, A. Marino, and P. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 143601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chou, S. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. Kimble, “Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 1–4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Lassen, V. Delaubert, J. Janousek, K. Wagner, H.-A. Bachor, P. Lam, N. Treps, P. Buchhave, C. Fabre, and C. Harb, “Tools for multimode quantum information: modulation, detection, and spatial quantum correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 083602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nunn, K. Reim, K. C. Lee, V. O. Lorenz, B. J. Sussman, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Jaksch, “Multimode memories in atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 260502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marino, V. Boyer, R. Pooser, P. Lett, K. Lemons, and K. Jones, “Delocalized correlations in twin light beams with orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, A. Gatti, M. Bache, E. Brambilla, and L. Lugiato, “High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 183602 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, “Observation of atom pairs in spontaneous four-wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

K. Hammerer, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing.” Science321, 544–547 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wagner, J. Janousek, V. Delaubert, H. Zou, C. Harb, N. Treps, J. F. Morizur, P. K. Lam, and H. A. Bachor, “Entangling the spatial properties of laser beams.” Science321, 541–543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Coherent diffusion of polaritons in atomic media,” Pre-print arXiv:1207.6748 (2012).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The process of the write-in and the read-out of atomic spin waves. (a) Left panel illustrates the pulse sequence. Dashed contours give a typical temporal evolution of the intensity of the Stokes and anti-Stokes scattered light as well as the decay of the atomic spin wave. (b) As sketched in the middle panel, the pump pulse is resonant with the F=2 → F’=2 transition on D2 line, while write and read pulse are 1 GHz detuned from F’=1 → F’=1 and F=2 → F’=2 transitions on D1 line respectively. (c) Right panel depicts the relation between the wave vectors of pumps kw, kr, photons ks, ka and a spin wave K involved in the cycle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup. Write and read lasers were spectrally and spatially cleaned with Fabry–Perrot filters FP. The pulses were shaped by acousto-optic modulators (AOM). The shielded cell with 87Rb vapor was illuminated by the write, the read and the pump beam. The far field of the Raman scattering was observed on the electron multiplier CCD (EM CCD) camera and the background of the scattering beams was supressed by polarization and the filtering (Wollaston polarizer and the 85Rb cell). Interference filter IF filtered the spontaneous emission background during the pumping. The pulse sequence was monitored using photodiodes PD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A typical decay of the average anti-Stokes intensity 〈na(θ = 1 mrad)〉 as a function of the storage time ts together with exponential fits exp(−γt). (b) The decay rates γ as a function of the scattering angle θ with a quadratic fit γ = D k s 2 θ 2 + const. Results are presented for three different buffer gases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Typical growth of the average intensity of Stokes scattering ns(θ) as a function of the write pulse duration tw for the scattering angle θ = 2 mrad with the exponential fit exp(κt)+const. The data taken for three different buffer gasses with similar atomic density. (b) Growth rate κ as a function of the scattering angle (points with errorbars). The lines show the expected damping due to diffusion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The single shot, speckle-like picture of the Raman Stokes (left) and the anti-Stokes (right) scattering. A single speckle comes from an interference between a larger number of spatial modes. Note the pictures display similar features but are rotated by 180°. The anti-Stokes scattering is cropped for higher angles due to decoherence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The average of the 10000 of frames shows that the scattering light is emitted symterically around the direction of the scattering beams (the origin of the coordinates). Data collected with cell containing 1 torr Kr.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized intensity correlation functions Css(θx, θy; θx, θy) (left panel) and Cas(θx, θy; θx, θy) (right panel) between a fixed direction in the Stokes θx, θy and any other direction θx, θy in the Stokes and anti-Stokes respectively. The reference direction (θx, θy) = (0.9, −1.6) mrad corresponds to the point in the center of the spot in the Stokes self-correlation function Css in the left panel. The center of the best correlated spot corresponds to the conjugate direction of the counterpart beam (θx, θy) = −(θx, θy). Contours were drawn at levels of 0.1, 0.2 up to 0.9. Results obtained in a cell with 1 torr Kr buffer gas.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sections of the intensity correlation functions Cis(θx, θy; θx, θy) along θy. Cross-correlation Cas for (a) θx = θy = θx = 0 and (b) θx = −θx = 0.7 mrad, θy = 0 calculated for the subsequent storage times ts =0, 3, 5, 8 μs. (c) Self-correlation Css for θx = −θx = 0, 2 mrad, θy = 0. Points depict experimental data, lines correspond to Gaussian fits.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The approximate number of modes in the anti-Stokes scattering N = 2(wavg/wC)2 as a function of storage time.

Equations (2)

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K = k w k s = [ | k s | sin θ , 0 , | k s | cos θ | k w | ] 2 π [ θ / ( 0.8 mm mrad ) , 0 , 1 / ( 44 mm ) ]
C i j ( θ x , θ y ; θ x , θ y ) = Δ n i ( θ x , θ y ) Δ n j ( θ x , θ y ) Δ n i 2 ( θ x , θ y ) Δ n j 2 ( θ x , θ y ) i = s , a j = s , a

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