Abstract

Pump and probe reflective imaging using a soft x-ray laser probe was applied to the observation of the early stage of femtosecond laser ablation process on platinum. In strongly excited area, drastic and fast reflectivity drop was observed. In moderately excited area, the decay of the reflectivity is slower than that in the strongly excited area, and the reflectivity reaches its minimum at t = 160 ps. In weakly excited area, laser-induced reflectivity change was not observed. In addition, the point where the reflectivity dip was observed at t = 10 ps and t = 40 ps, coincides with the position of the edge of reflectivity drop at t = 160 ps. These results give the critical information about the femtosecond laser ablation.

© 2012 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation studied with time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79, 144106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, “Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11892–11906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamical study of femtosecond-laser-ablated liquid-aluminum nanoparticles using spatiotemporally resolved X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 165003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Periodic ordering of random surface nanostructures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on metals,” J. Appl. Phys.101, 034903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals,” Opt. Express14, 2164–2169 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lorazo, L. J. Lewis, and M. Meunier, “Thermodynamic pathways to melting, ablation, and solidification in absorbing solids under pulsed laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 134108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 879–881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

B. J. Garrison, T. E. Itina, and L. V. Zhigilei, “Limit of overheating and the threshold behavior in laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. E68, 041501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, “Molecular-dynamics study of ablation of solids under femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev.B67, 184102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155, 1–10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, “Observation of a transient insulating phase of metals and semiconductors during short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.127129, 755–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Lasersolid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci.109–110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Stoev and K. Sakurai, “Recent theoretical models in grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Rigaku J.14, 22–37 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Yanagihara, T. Sasaki, M. Furudate, and M. Yamamoto, “Consistency of the surface roughness determined from soft-x-ray reflectance and surface profiles measured using a scanning tunnelling microscope: coherence length of the soft x-rays,” Opt. Rev.3, 65–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, G. D.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akre, R. A.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, O.

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amoruso, S.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anisimov, S. I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belkacem, A.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bialkowski, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, “Observation of a transient insulating phase of metals and semiconductors during short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.127129, 755–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Lasersolid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci.109–110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blome, C.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, M. J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer-Leborgne, C.

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boutet, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzese, R.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, “Observation of a transient insulating phase of metals and semiconductors during short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.127129, 755–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. B.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Chichkov, B. N.

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 879–881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cros, A.

A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deb, A.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deki, M.

Delaporte, P.

A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deliwala, S.

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Düsterer, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Ehrke, H.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eliaz, N.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eliezer, S.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Engemann, S.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchepare, J.

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R.W.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallnich, C.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Finlay, R. J.

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fraenkel, M.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frank, M.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. M.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuoss, P. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furudate, M.

M. Yanagihara, T. Sasaki, M. Furudate, and M. Yamamoto, “Consistency of the surface roughness determined from soft-x-ray reflectance and surface profiles measured using a scanning tunnelling microscope: coherence length of the soft x-rays,” Opt. Rev.3, 65–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaffney, K. J.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garrison, B. J.

B. J. Garrison, T. E. Itina, and L. V. Zhigilei, “Limit of overheating and the threshold behavior in laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. E68, 041501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, M. J.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgiou, S.

A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glinec, Y.

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gouzman, I.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, E.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Periodic ordering of random surface nanostructures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on metals,” J. Appl. Phys.101, 034903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals,” Opt. Express14, 2164–2169 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajdu, J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallo, L.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

T. Suemoto, K. Terakawa, Y. Ochi, T. Tomita, M. Yamamoto, N. Hasegawa, M. Deki, Y. Minami, and T. Kawachi, “Single-shot picosecond interferometry with one-nanometer resolution for dynamical surface morphology using a soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Express18, 14114–14122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hastings, J. B.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau-Riege, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P. A.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henis, Z.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Her, T-H.

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hillyard, P. B.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horovitz, Y.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, Z.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itina, T. E.

B. J. Garrison, T. E. Itina, and L. V. Zhigilei, “Limit of overheating and the threshold behavior in laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. E68, 041501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, D. S.

L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, “Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11892–11906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaihori, T.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

T. Suemoto, K. Terakawa, Y. Ochi, T. Tomita, M. Yamamoto, N. Hasegawa, M. Deki, Y. Minami, and T. Kawachi, “Single-shot picosecond interferometry with one-nanometer resolution for dynamical surface morphology using a soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Express18, 14114–14122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, M.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J.

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 879–881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Korte, F.

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 879–881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Krejcik, P.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, J.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lereah, Y.

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, L. J.

P. Lorazo, L. J. Lewis, and M. Meunier, “Thermodynamic pathways to melting, ablation, and solidification in absorbing solids under pulsed laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 134108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, “Molecular-dynamics study of ablation of solids under femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev.B67, 184102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

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E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
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K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation studied with time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79, 144106 (2009).
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K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamical study of femtosecond-laser-ablated liquid-aluminum nanoparticles using spatiotemporally resolved X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 165003 (2007).
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Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
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K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation studied with time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79, 144106 (2009).
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K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamical study of femtosecond-laser-ablated liquid-aluminum nanoparticles using spatiotemporally resolved X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 165003 (2007).
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K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
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F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

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T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
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A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
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D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, “Molecular-dynamics study of ablation of solids under femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev.B67, 184102 (2003).
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T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
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O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
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A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
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K. Stoev and K. Sakurai, “Recent theoretical models in grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Rigaku J.14, 22–37 (1997).

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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
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A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
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Serbin, J.

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

Siddons, D. P.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
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A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
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K. Stoev and K. Sakurai, “Recent theoretical models in grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Rigaku J.14, 22–37 (1997).

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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
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Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
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Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
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E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
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Treusch, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tschentscher, Th.

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vitiello, M.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155, 1–10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, “Observation of a transient insulating phase of metals and semiconductors during short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.127129, 755–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Lasersolid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci.109–110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Periodic ordering of random surface nanostructures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on metals,” J. Appl. Phys.101, 034903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of metals,” Opt. Express14, 2164–2169 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woods, B. W.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

T. Suemoto, K. Terakawa, Y. Ochi, T. Tomita, M. Yamamoto, N. Hasegawa, M. Deki, Y. Minami, and T. Kawachi, “Single-shot picosecond interferometry with one-nanometer resolution for dynamical surface morphology using a soft x-ray laser,” Opt. Express18, 14114–14122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yanagihara, T. Sasaki, M. Furudate, and M. Yamamoto, “Consistency of the surface roughness determined from soft-x-ray reflectance and surface profiles measured using a scanning tunnelling microscope: coherence length of the soft x-rays,” Opt. Rev.3, 65–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Yanagihara, T. Sasaki, M. Furudate, and M. Yamamoto, “Consistency of the surface roughness determined from soft-x-ray reflectance and surface profiles measured using a scanning tunnelling microscope: coherence length of the soft x-rays,” Opt. Rev.3, 65–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. A.

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhigilei, L. V.

L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, “Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11892–11906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Garrison, T. E. Itina, and L. V. Zhigilei, “Limit of overheating and the threshold behavior in laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. E68, 041501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A. (4)

F. Korte, J. Koch, and B. N. Chichkov, “Formation of microbumps and nanojets on gold targets by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 879–881 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Pereira, A. Cros, P. Delaporte, S. Georgiou, A. Manousaki, W. Marine, and M. Sentis, “Surface nanostructuring of metals by laser irradiation: effects of pulse duration, wavelength and gas atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. A.79, 1433–1437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Koch, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B. B. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A.77, 229–235 (2003).

O. Albert, S. Roger, Y. Glinec, J. C. Loulergue, J. Etchepare, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, J. Perrière, and E. Millon, “Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of a titanium plasma induced by nanosecond and femtosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. A.76, 319–323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73, 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

D. von der Linde, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, and J. Bialkowski, “Lasersolid interaction in the femtosecond time regime,” Appl. Surf. Sci.109–110, 1–10 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, “Observation of a transient insulating phase of metals and semiconductors during short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.127129, 755–760 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155, 1–10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Amoruso, R. Bruzzese, N. Spinelli, R. Velotta, M. Vitiello, and X. Wang, “Emission of nanoparticles during ultrashort laser irradiation of silicon targets,” Europhys. Lett.67, 404–410 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. Guo, “Periodic ordering of random surface nanostructures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on metals,” J. Appl. Phys.101, 034903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

L. V. Zhigilei, Z. Lin, and D. S. Ivanov, “Atomistic modeling of short pulse laser ablation of metals: connections between melting, spallation, and phase explosion,” J. Phys. Chem. C113, 11892–11906 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagahima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicroJoule, spatially coherent soft-x-ray laser pumped by 0.1 hertz, 10 joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48, 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowsli-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics2, 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Yanagihara, T. Sasaki, M. Furudate, and M. Yamamoto, “Consistency of the surface roughness determined from soft-x-ray reflectance and surface profiles measured using a scanning tunnelling microscope: coherence length of the soft x-rays,” Opt. Rev.3, 65–70 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation studied with time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79, 144106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Lorazo, L. J. Lewis, and M. Meunier, “Thermodynamic pathways to melting, ablation, and solidification in absorbing solids under pulsed laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 134108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Eliezer, N. Eliaz, E. Grossman, D. Fisher, I. Gouzman, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Horovitz, M. Fraenkel, S. Maman, and Y. Lereah, “Synthesis of nanoparticles with femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B69, 144119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: confined microexplosion and void formation,” Phys. Rev. B73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

B. J. Garrison, T. E. Itina, and L. V. Zhigilei, “Limit of overheating and the threshold behavior in laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. E68, 041501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Oguri, Y. Okano, T. Nishikawa, and H. Nakano, “Dynamical study of femtosecond-laser-ablated liquid-aluminum nanoparticles using spatiotemporally resolved X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 165003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, G. D. Ackerman, A. Belkacem, P. A. Heimann, Z. Hussain, R. W. Lee, H. A. Padmore, C. Ray, R. W. Schoenlein, W. F. Steele, and D. A. Young, “Metal-insulator transitions in an expanding metallic fluid: particle formation kinetics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 236102 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lindenberg, S. Engemann, K. J. Gaffney, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Larsson, P. B. Hillyard, D. A. Reis, D. M. Fritz, J. Arthur, R. A. Akre, M. J. George, A. Deb, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, D. A. Meyer, M. Nicoul, C. Blome, Th. Tschentscher, A. L. Cavalieri, R.W. Falcone, S. H. Lee, R. Pahl, J. Rudati, P. H. Fuoss, A. J. Nelson, P. Krejcik, D. P. Siddons, P. Lorazo, and J. B. Hastings, “X-ray diffuse scattering measurements of nucleation dynamics at femtosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 135502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev.B (1)

D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, “Molecular-dynamics study of ablation of solids under femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev.B67, 184102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigaku J. (1)

K. Stoev and K. Sakurai, “Recent theoretical models in grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry,” Rigaku J.14, 22–37 (1997).

Other (1)

http://henke.lbl.gov/optical_constants/

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for near IR pump and soft x-ray probe microscopy. The soft x-ray probe beam was focused in front of a sample by the concave mirror (imaging mirror A) and the sample image was transferred onto the detector by the concave mirror (imaging mirror B). Femtosecond laser beam was focused by a lens onto the sample surface, and the pumping energy was adjusted by using a combination of a half-wavelength plate and a polarizing beam splitter

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam profile of pump (Ti:Sapphire laser) pulse measured by SPIRICON beam analyzer. The spatial profiles of the cross sections cut along x–x′ and y–y′ lines are also shown. The open circles show measurement results and the solid curves show the result of Gaussian fitting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(g) are snapshots of the sample surface probed by soft x-ray laser at different times after exposure to the pump pulse (Peak fluence : 4.1 J/cm2). The arrow under (h) shows the direction of the incident soft x-ray. To overcome the spatial fluctuation of the X-ray probe, the contrast has been optimized to better visualize their most characteristic features. The scale-bar shown in (a) applies to all images (a)–(h). The intensity profiles along the dotted lines are shown in Fig. 4, where points A and D correspond to the left and right ends of the dotted line. The yellow arrows shown in (b) and (c) indicate the ring position. The yellow arrows shown in (h) shows the edge of the ablation crater. For comparison, the image at t = +∞ observed by an optical microscope is also shown in (h).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The fluence distribution of the pump beam. The classification of the laser fluence is also shown in this figure; (i) strongly excited area (between 1.2 J/cm2 (B) and 4.1 J/cm2 (A)), (ii) moderately excited area (between 0.5 J/cm2 (C) and 1.2 J/cm2 (B)), and (iii) weakly excited area (below 0.5 J/cm2 (C)). (b) The reflectivity at a grazing angle of 24.5 degrees is plotted as a function of the radial position (fluence dependence).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of the reflectivity is shown in moderately excited area. These values are obtained at the position of 47.1μm, and normalized by the reflectivity of the weakly excited area between C and D. The dotted line shows the exponential fit to the data assuming the decay time of 36 ps.

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