Abstract

Microresonator optical frequency combs based on cascaded four-wave mixing are potentially attractive as a multi-wavelength source for on-chip optical communications. In this paper we compare time domain coherence, radio-frequency (RF) intensity noise, and individual line optical communications performance for combs generated from two different silicon nitride microresonators. The comb generated by one microresonator forms directly with lines spaced by a single free spectral range (FSR) and exhibits high coherence, low noise, and excellent 10 Gbit/s optical communications results. The comb generated by the second microresonator forms initially with multiple FSR line spacing, with additional lines later filling to reach single FSR spacing. This comb exhibits degraded coherence, increased intensity noise, and severely degraded communications performance. This study is to our knowledge the first to simultaneously investigate and observe a correlation between the route to comb formation, the coherence, noise, and optical communications performance of a Kerr comb.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (8)

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Normal group-velocity dispersion Kerr frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 43–45 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Grudinin, L. Baumgartel, and N. Yu, “Frequency comb from a microresonator with engineered spectrum,” Opt. Express20(6), 6604–6609 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express20(24), 27290–27298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 293–296 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Generation of near-infrared frequency combs from a MgF₂ whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2290–2292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express19(15), 14233–14239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(9), 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Agha, I. H.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aksyuk, V.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartel, L.

Carmon, T.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferdous, F.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express19(15), 14233–14239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express19(15), 14233–14239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gavartin, E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudinin, I. S.

Hartinger, K.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Herr, T.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express20(24), 27290–27298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Generation of near-infrared frequency combs from a MgF₂ whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2290–2292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 293–296 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(9), 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzucu, O.

Leaird, D. E.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J. S.

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express19(15), 14233–14239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Lipson, M.

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-based monolithic optical frequency comb source,” Opt. Express19(15), 14233–14239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A. B.

Miao, H.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okawachi, Y.

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett.36(17), 3398–3400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papp, S. B.

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasquazi, A.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peccianti, M.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27363 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riemensberger, J.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saha, K.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidel, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express20(24), 27290–27298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Generation of near-infrared frequency combs from a MgF₂ whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2290–2292 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 293–296 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(9), 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solomatine, I.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(9), 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

Varghese, L. T.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Y.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

Weiner, A. M.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y. H.

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yu, N.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. S. Levy, K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “High-performance silicon-nitride-based multiple-wavelength source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1375–1377 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 293–296 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

I. H. Agha, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Four-wave-mixing parametric oscillations in dispersion-compensated high-Q silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 053833 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(5), 053903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(6), 063901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(9), 093902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. Del'Haye, A. Schliesser, J. Hofer, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared optical frequency combs based on crystalline microresonators,” arXiv:1109.2716v2.

J. Li, H. Lee, T. Chen, and K. J. Vahala, “Low-pump-power, low-phase-noise, and microwave to millimeter-wave repetition rate operation in microcombs,” arXiv:1208.5256v1.

J. Pfeifle, C. Weimann, F. Bach, J. Riemensberger, K. Hartinger, D. Hillerkuss, M. Jordan, R. Holtzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs for high-bitrate WDM data transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW1C.4.

O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, P. DelHaye, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation in monolithic microresonators,” in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A. B. Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), Chap. 11.

E. P. Ippen and C. V. Shank, “Techniques for measurement,” in Ultrashort Light Pulses: Picosecond Techniques and Applications, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1977) 18, 83–122.

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009), Chap. 3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for optical communications measurement of the frequency combs generated from silicon nitride microresonators. CW: continuous-wave; RF: radio-frequency; EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier; FPC: fiber polarization controller; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; BERT: bit error rate tester.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generated frequency combs from two different silicon nitride ring resonators (outer radius, 40 μm). The spectral curves are obtained under different regimes of comb formation. The input power and wavelength of the tunable CW pump are (a) 26.5 dBm, 1543.08 nm (Resonator 1), (b) 13 dBm, 1549.93 nm (Resonator 2), and (c) 13 dBm, 1549.94 nm (Resonator 2), respectively. OSA spectra are measured directly after the microresonator chip at 0.01 nm spectral resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) (b) (c) Autocorrelation traces corresponding to the frequency combs in Figs. 2(a), (b), and (c), respectively. Red lines show intensity autocorrelation traces calculated by taking the optical spectra and assuming flat spectral phase, while the green and blue traces show the measured autocorrelation traces before and after the line-by-line phase compensation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) RF noise spectra of exemplary combs obtained from Resonator 1 (Type I comb). (b) RF noise spectra of the frequency comb at 1559.4 nm before and after tuning the pumping wavelength (Resonator 2). (c) The corresponding RF spectra of the newly generated spectral lines from a Type II frequency comb with pumping wavelength at 1549.94 nm (Resonator 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) BER measurements and (b) the corresponding eye diagrams of seven selected comb lines from Type I combs and the CW reference (taken prior to the microresonator). The open eye diagrams confirm the high quality of the OOK communications performance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagrams of each of three filtered comb lines generated from Resonator 2 with pumping at 1549.93 nm. The received power for the plotted eye diagrams is −11 dBm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The eye diagrams of a Type II frequency comb with pumping at 1549.94 nm. The received power for the plotted eye diagrams is −11 dBm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER traces of individual lines selected from Resonator 2 with pumping at 1549.93 nm (2-FSR operation, solid lines) and 1549.94 nm (Type II, operation, dashed lines). The two curves shown under Type II operation exhibit a power penalty of ≈2 dB. For other comb lines, the performance under Type II operation was so poor that the error rate could not be determined.

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