Abstract

We demonstrate vertical-incidence electroabsorption modulators for free-space optical interconnects. The devices operate via the quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells grown on silicon substrates by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The strong electroabsorption contrast enables use of a moderate-Q asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonant cavity, formed using a film transfer process, which allows for operation over a wide optical bandwidth without thermal tuning. Extinction ratios of 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB are obtained for 3 V and 1.5 V drive swings, respectively, with insertion loss less than 4.5 dB. For 60 μm diameter devices, large signal modulation is demonstrated at 2 Gbps, and a 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 3.5 GHz is observed. These devices show promise for high-speed, low-energy operation given further miniaturization.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 22224–22232 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Ren, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator for optical interconnect systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2011).
  24. P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, “Evaluation of the tolerance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators with respect to realistic operating conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140–1151 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Schmidt, “Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1575–1585 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. L. Mitsas and D. I. Siapkas, “Generalized matrix method for analysis of coherent and incoherent reflectance and transmittance of multilayer structures with rough surfaces, interfaces, and finite substrates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1678–1683 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Onaran, M. C. Onbasli, A. Yesilyurt, H. Y. Yu, A. M. Nayfeh, and A. K. Okyay, “Silicon-germanium multi-quantum well photodetectors in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 20, 7608 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, A293–A308 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. S. Rouifed, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. L. Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect at 1.3 ?m in Ge/Si0.35Ge0.65 quantum-well structure,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3960–3962 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20, 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Onaran, M. C. Onbasli, A. Yesilyurt, H. Y. Yu, A. M. Nayfeh, and A. K. Okyay, “Silicon-germanium multi-quantum well photodetectors in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 20, 7608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rouifed, P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, S. Edmond, X. L. Roux, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect at 1.3 ?m in Ge/Si0.35Ge0.65 quantum-well structure,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3960–3962 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, A. Valavanis, J. Cooper, and R. Kelsall, “Design of Ge/SiGe quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption heterostructures for CMOS compatible photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3273–3281 (2010).

2009

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Schmidt, “Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1575–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, “Evaluation of the tolerance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators with respect to realistic operating conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140–1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Mitsas and D. I. Siapkas, “Generalized matrix method for analysis of coherent and incoherent reflectance and transmittance of multilayer structures with rough surfaces, interfaces, and finite substrates,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1678–1683 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1991

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, and L. A. Coldren, “Surface-normal electroabsorption reflection modulators using asymmetric Fabry-Perot structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1922–1931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, “High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure,” Electron. Lett. 25, 566–568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Atkinson, D.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Ayliffe, M. H.

Barron, C.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barron, C. C.

C. C. Barron, C. J. Mahon, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, “Design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators for optical interconnect applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, S885–S898 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benyoucef, M.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, E.

Bijlani, B.

Bowers, J.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, D. F.

Brubaker, J. L.

Cannon, D.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

Chandramani, P.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

Christensen, M.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chui, C. O.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Claussen, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Claussen, S. A.

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Cloonan, T. J.

Coldren, L.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

C. C. Barron, C. J. Mahon, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, “Design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators for optical interconnect applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, S885–S898 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, and L. A. Coldren, “Surface-normal electroabsorption reflection modulators using asymmetric Fabry-Perot structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1922–1931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

Coudevylle, J.-R.

Crisci, R. J.

Cunningham, J.

Dosunmu, O.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O. I.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Edmond, S.

Edwards, E.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E. H.

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Ekman, J.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Emsley, M.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fei, E.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Fidaner, O.

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fokken, G.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

Frigerio, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gemming, T.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, B.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giovane, L. M.

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Huo, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

Isella, G.

Jiang, W.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelsall, R.

Kerbis, E.

Kiamilev, F.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, F. K.

Le Roux, X.

Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

Lever, L.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lin, J. J.

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Luo, Y.

Ly-Gagnon, D. S.

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, C.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, C. J.

C. C. Barron, C. J. Mahon, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, “Design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators for optical interconnect applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, S885–S898 (1993).
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Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
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Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express 20, A293–A308 (2012).
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R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Milojkovic, P.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
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Morrison, R. L.

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J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
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A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
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Nayfeh, A. M.

Novotny, R. A.

Ochalski, T.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
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P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Potfajova, J.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rastelli, A.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

S. Ren, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator for optical interconnect systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2011).

Rieve, J.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Rolston, D. R.

Rong, Y.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M. S.

Rouifed, M.-S.

Roux, X. L.

Roy, A. M.

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Schaevitz, R.

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15, 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Schmidt, B.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

M. Schmidt, “Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1575–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O. G.

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Siapkas, D. I.

Simes, R. J.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, and L. A. Coldren, “Surface-normal electroabsorption reflection modulators using asymmetric Fabry-Perot structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1922–1931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, P. J.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szymanski, T. H.

Tan, M.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tasyurek, E.

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Thibeault, B.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B. J.

C. C. Barron, C. J. Mahon, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, “Design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators for optical interconnect applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, S885–S898 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

Unlu, M.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

Valavanis, A.

Vickberg, M.

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vranesic, Z. G.

Wahl, P.

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

Wang, G.

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, M.

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, “High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure,” Electron. Lett. 25, 566–568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. H.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, and L. A. Coldren, “Surface-normal electroabsorption reflection modulators using asymmetric Fabry-Perot structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1922–1931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yesilyurt, A.

Yonehara, T.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. Y.

Zouganeli, P.

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, “Evaluation of the tolerance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators with respect to realistic operating conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140–1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

AIP Advances

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Advances 1, 032164 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. J. Lin, A. M. Roy, A. Nainani, Y. Sun, and K. C. Saraswat, “Increase in current density for metal contacts to n-germanium by inserting TiO2 interfacial layer to reduce Schottky barrier height,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 092113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Giovane, H.-C. Luan, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Correlation between leakage current density and threading dislocation density in SiGe p-i-n diodes grown on relaxed graded buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 541–543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Selective epitaxial growth of Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 quantum wells on Si substrate using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Potfajova, B. Schmidt, M. Helm, T. Gemming, M. Benyoucef, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Microcavity enhanced silicon light emitting pn-diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Whitehead and G. Parry, “High-contrast reflection modulation at normal incidence in asymmetric multiple quantum well Fabry-Perot structure,” Electron. Lett. 25, 566–568 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. H. Yan, R. J. Simes, and L. A. Coldren, “Surface-normal electroabsorption reflection modulators using asymmetric Fabry-Perot structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1922–1931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Schaevitz, E. Edwards, J. Roth, E. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310 nm and 1550 nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 187–197 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Barron, C. Mahon, B. Thibeault, G. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Coldren, and J. Bowers, “Millimeter-wave asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1484–1493 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli, P. J. Stevens, D. Atkinson, and G. Parry, “Design trade-offs and evaluation of the performance attainable by GaAs – Al0.3Ga0.7As asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 927–943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Zouganeli and G. Parry, “Evaluation of the tolerance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators with respect to realistic operating conditions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1140–1151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Audet, E. H. Edwards, P. Wahl, and D. A. B. Miller, “Investigation of limits to the optical performance of asymmetric Fabry-Perot electroabsorption modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 198–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, T. Kamins, T. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum wells on Si for optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1503–1513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, and D. A. B. Miller, “Material properties of Si-Ge/Ge quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1082–1089 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2, 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

C. C. Barron, C. J. Mahon, B. J. Thibeault, and L. A. Coldren, “Design, fabrication and characterization of high-speed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulators for optical interconnect applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, S885–S898 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

M. Haney, M. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, and F. Kiamilev, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88, 819–828 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, “Wafer-to-wafer bonding for microstructure formation,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1575–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. H. Edwards, R. M. Audet, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, E. Tasyurek, S. Ren, O. I. Dosunmu, M. S. Ünlü, and D. A. B. Miller, “Si-Ge surface-normal asymmetric Fabry-Perot quantum-confined Stark effect electroabsorption modulator,” in “Proc. IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings, Playa del Carmen, Mexico,” 211–212 (2010).

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “A Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” in “2011 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP),” 11–13 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator for optical interconnect systems,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Epitaxial layer structure consisting of fifteen Ge/SiGe quantum wells grown on a p-type silicon wafer with a fully relaxed SiGe buffer layer grown using a three-stage hydrogen annealing process. (b) Absorption spectrum of the epitaxial structure, deduced from photocurrent measurements. The effective absorption coefficient is calculated from the absorption per pass divided by the thickness of the epitaxial region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of the asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator. Light enters from the top. A voltage is applied across a p-i-n diode containing the quantum wells inside the intrinsic region. Field-dependent absorption in the QWs modulates the intensity of the reflected light. The asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by DBR mirrors surrounding the SiGe. The device is bonded to a Pyrex handle wafer. (b) Microscope image of device showing the AFP modulator, electrically contacted by a high-speed probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified diagram of the experimental setup. The instrumentation shown is for large-signal high-speed measurements. DC measurements and small-signal high-speed measurements use the same optical train but different measurement equipment, as described in Sec. 3.1 and 3.2, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DC modulator performance. (a) Photocurrent spectra for different applied reverse bias voltages. (b) Corresponding reflection spectra for the same set of applied voltages. (c) Spectra showing the extinction ratio versus wavelength for 1, 2, and 3 V swings, with starting reverse bias of 0.5 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

High-speed measurement results for a 60 μm diameter device, with 2.2 V DC reverse bias, at a wavelength of 1436 nm. (a) Open eye diagram at 2 Gbps, 1 V swing. (b) Small signal measurement of the optical modulation showing a 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 3.5 GHz, and measurable response beyond 10 GHz.

Equations (1)

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R T = | R f R b , eff | 2 | 1 R f R b , eff | 2 ,

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