Abstract

We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).
  19. Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Mukhanov, “Energy-Efficient Single Flux Quantum Technology,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 760–769 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. P. Ipatov, Spread Spectrum and CDMA (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) 31–37.
  25. O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).
  28. E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mukhanov, “Energy-Efficient Single Flux Quantum Technology,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 760–769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

2007 (5)

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aeschbacher, A.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anant, V.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, J.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brandel, O.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bunyk, P.

P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chan, A.

Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. M.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiano, R.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crocoll, E.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dauler, E.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Divochiy, A.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doriese, W. B.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, S.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dressel, M.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drung, D.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, B.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ejrnaes, M.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eldar, Y.

Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Engel, A.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engert, S.

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Febvre, P.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Florya, I.

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsch, L.

Fujimaki, A.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaggero, A.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goltsman, G.

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goltsman, G. N.

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Günther, B.

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haas, P.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanzo, L.

E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, Y.

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heintze, E.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, D.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, G. C.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hofherr, M.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Hubers, H.-W.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H.-W.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Il’in, K.

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilin, K.

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Il'in, K.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inderbitzin, K.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, K. D.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jukna, A.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kameda, Y.

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaurova, N.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kirste, A.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komissarov, I.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A. A.

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korneeva, Y.

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, E. L.

E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, J.

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leoni, R.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Likharev, K.

P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Makise, K.

Mattioli, F.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

May, T.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.-G.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Miki, S.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milostnaya, I.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minaeva, O.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukhanov, O.

O. Mukhanov, “Energy-Efficient Single Flux Quantum Technology,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 760–769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, C. M.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, S. X.

E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niemack, M. D.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J. L.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ortlepp, T.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, S.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Peruzzo, A.

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, O.

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rall, D.

Reintsema, C. D.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosfjord, E.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scheffler, M.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, A.

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, D. R.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, T.

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A. D.

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, M.

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Smirnov, A.

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Tarkhov, M.

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terai, H.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toepfer, H.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, M. Hofherr, L. Fritzsch, S. Engert, K. Ilin, D. Rall, H. Toepfer, H.-G. Meyer, and M. Siegel, “Demonstration of digital readout circuit for superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” Opt. Express19(19), 18593–18601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Uhlmann, F.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, F. H.

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, H. F.

T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ullom, J. N.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vale, L. R.

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, and Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wetzstein, O.

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

Wuensch, S.

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Yamanashi, Y.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Yamashita, T.

Yang, J.

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yorozu, S.

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, N.

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zinoviev, D.

P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol'tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, H. Toepfer, and H. F. Uhlmann, “Minimization of noise-induced bit error rate in a high TC superconducting dc/single flux quantum converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1279–1281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, A. Peruzzo, S. Miki, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, B. Baek, S. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, and J. L. O'Brien, “Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 211101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Engel, A. Aeschbacher, K. Inderbitzin, A. Schilling, K. Il'in, M. Hofherr, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, and H.-W. Hubers, “Tantalum nitride superconducting single-photon detectors with low cut-off energy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(6), 062601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (10)

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Dauler, B. Robinson, A. Kerman, J. Yang, E. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, and K. Berggren, “Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Komissarov, A. Jukna, D. Pan, O. Minaeva, N. Kaurova, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, B. Voronov, I. Milostnaya, G. Goltsman, and R. Sobolewski, “Dark counts in nanostructured NbN superconducting single-photon detectors and bridges,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 275–278 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Engert, O. Wetzstein, M. Hofherr, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, H.-G. Meyer, and H. Toepfer, “Mathematical analysis of multiplexing techniques for SNSPD arrays,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (submitted to).

T. Ortlepp and F. H. Uhlmann, “Technology related timing jitter in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 534–537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hashimoto, S. Yorozu, Y. Kameda, A. Fujimaki, H. Terai, and N. Yoshikawa, “Design and investigation of gate-to-gate passive interconnections for SFQ logic circuits,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.15(3), 3814–3820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, O. Wetzstein, S. Engert, J. Kunert, and H. Toepfer, “Reduced power consumption in superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 770–775 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mukhanov, “Energy-Efficient Single Flux Quantum Technology,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.21(3), 760–769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ortlepp, S. Wuensch, M. Schubert, P. Febvre, B. Ebert, J. Kunert, E. Crocoll, H.-G. Meyer, M. Siegel, and F. Uhlmann, “Superconductor-to-semiconductor interface circuit for high data rates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(1), 28–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, S. Miki, and Z. Wang, “Readout electronics using single-flux-quantum circuit technology for superconducting single-photon detector array,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.19(3), 350–353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

Y. Eldar and A. Chan, “An optimal whitening approach to linear multiuser detection,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory49(9), 2156–2171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

E. L. Kuan, S. X. Ng, and L. Hanzo, “Joint-detection and interference cancellation based burst-by-burst adaptive CDMA schemes,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.51(6), 1479–1493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron (1)

A. Fujimaki, M. Tanaka, T. Yamada, Y. Yamanashi, H. Park, and N. Yoshikawa, ““Bit-Serial Single Flux Quantum Microprocessor CORE 1,” IEICE Trans. ElectronE91(C), 342–349 (2008).

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (1)

P. Bunyk, K. Likharev, and D. Zinoviev, “RSFQ technology: physics and devices,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.11(01), 257–305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Henrich, S. Dörner, M. Hofherr, K. Il'in, A. Semenov, E. Heintze, M. Scheffler, M. Dressel, and M. Siegel, “Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 074511 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Semenov, P. Haas, H.-W. Hübers, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Engel, “Intrinsic quantum efficiency and electro-thermal model of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 345–351 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. C Supercond. (1)

A. D. Semenov, G. N. Goltsman, and A. A. Korneev, “Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting film,” Phys. C Supercond.351(4), 349–356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Supercond Sci. Tech. (3)

O. Brandel, O. Wetzstein, T. May, H. Toepfer, T. Ortlepp, and H.-G. Meyer, “RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches,” Supercond Sci. Tech.25(12), 125012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Irwin, M. D. Niemack, J. Beyer, H. M. Cho, W. B. Doriese, G. C. Hilton, C. D. Reintsema, D. R. Schmidt, J. N. Ullom, and L. R. Vale, “Code-division multiplexing of superconducting transition-edge sensor arrays,” Supercond Sci. Tech.23(3), 034004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Semenov, P. Haas, B. Günther, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, M. Siegel, A. Kirste, J. Beyer, D. Drung, T. Schurig, and A. Smirnov, “An energy-resolving superconducting nanowire photon counter,” Supercond Sci. Tech.20(10), 919–924 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. P. Ipatov, Spread Spectrum and CDMA (John Wiley & Sons, 2005) 31–37.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photo image of a four-detector element array of SNSPDs, the position of SNSPDs is marked by circles, (b) SEM image of a single detector element structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Block diagram of a binary-tree pulse merger utilized in the experiments (DC/SFQ: input interface, JTL: Josephson transmission line, CB: Confluence buffer, SFQ/DC: output interface). This design is used in the later experiment (b) Proposal of a serial pulse merger, which allows better routing for larger arrays with passive transmission lines (MSL: micro stripe line, PTL: superconducting passive transmission lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscilloscope screen shot of the RSFQ output signal: Proof of principle of one detector element readout. The upper trace demonstrates the switching of the photon source (blue). Only during the laser light “on” phase level transitions of the RSFQ output voltage indicate photon count events (green). The RSFQ output was amplified by 80 dB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mounting of the SNSPD array next to the RSFQ electronics. The SNSPD chip (left) has a size of 3 mm x 3 mm. Each of the 4 detectors is connected to a separate coplanar readout line and bonded to the RSFQ chip. The RSFQ chip (right) has a size of 5 mm x 5 mm. The complete readout circuit is symmetrically designed twice on the chip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme of the whole measurement setup. The SNSPD array and the RSFQ readout are operating at 4.2 K. The bias is provided by low noise current sources. The current switching and the data aquisition are made by a combined programmable switch controller and FPGA system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the photon statistic between classical pulse counter based readout and the RSFQ readout. Presented is the mean value µ and the standard deviation σ for different gate times Δt. For the standard readout a 4 nm thick single pixel detector is used as benchmark. In the RSFQ case, one channel of the 10 nm thick multi-pixel chip is used. Both readouts show the characteristics as expected from the Poission distribution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured switching probability distribution of the count numbers for all four detector elements readout by the RSFQ electronics. Each detector was analyzed separately and a fit with a Gaussian distribution is shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Mean value of overall counts and standard deviation for different numbers of active detectors. The standard deviation increases with increasing number of active detectors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Five measured periods of the orthogonal sequencing multiplexer. The detectors are activated according to Table 1. Each biasing sequence is applied for a time tclk = 50 ms. Each point describes the counts during the time tclk.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer: Linear dependency of the extracted counts on the switching interval tclk. The absolute value is proportional to the momentary photon flux on each detector element

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mean value µ and standard deviation σ of orthogonal sequencing measurements for different photon flux conditions. The error bars mark the deviation from a single pixel reference measurement. The standard deviation in each of the three measurements is almost identical for all detector elements. The common standard deviation varies with the overall count number.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated count rates for a frame T based on different measurement times tclk. The count rates are almost independent of the switching time tclk, but the standard deviation decreases with increasing measurement time tclk.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 , One frame of switching code sequences for four detectors, defined by the H8 Walsh functions. The H8 matrix can principally readout up to seven detectors.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H 2n =[ H n H n H n H n ]{1,1} 2n×2n with the starting matrix: H 2 =( 1 1 1 1 ).
c ext T = c T M H 2n ,
c ext T =( 0, c 1 , c 2 , c 3 ,... c n1 ) H 2n {10} H 2n = ( 0, c 1 , c 2 , c 3 ,... c n1 )( 2n 0 0 n n 0 0 0 0 0 0 n 0 0 n )= ( n( c 1 + c 2 ++ c n1 ) n c 1 n c 2 n c 3 n c n1 ) T .
c t clk ,X{1,2,3,4} = 1 n 0 T H 2n ,X (t) Out(t)dt= 1 n i=1 2n Count H 2n ,X (i t clk ) τ=(i1) t clk τ=i t clk Out( τ )
C R X = 2n c t clk ,X{1,2,...,2n1} t clk
µ=D E X n phX Δt
µ X > σ level 2 D E X n phX n t clk > σ D1 2 + σ D2 2 +...

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