Abstract

Metamaterial-based perfect absorbers promise many applications. Perfect absorption is characterized by the complete suppression of transmission and reflection and complete dissipation of the incident energy by the absorptive meta-atoms. A certain absorption spectrum is usually assigned to a bulk medium and serves as a signature of the respective material. Here we show how to use graphene flakes as building blocks for perfect absorbers. Then, an absorbing meta-atom only consists of a molecular monolayer placed at an appropriate distance from a metallic ground plate. We show that the functionality of such device is intuitively and correctly explained by a Fabry-Perot model.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano6, 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Manjavacas, P. Nordlander, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Plasmon blockade in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano6, 1724–1731 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. M. Watts, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24, OP98–OP120, (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B85, 081405(R) (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu and G. Shvets, “Design of metamaterial surfaces with broad-band absorbance,” Opt. Lett.37, 308–310 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express20, 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B84, 075102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics,” Nature Photonics6, 259–264 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. G. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett.11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. D. Chong, Li Ge, Hui Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rana, “Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.7, 91–99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. A. Falkovsky and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical Far-Infrared Properties of a Graphene Monolayer and Multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte “Conductivity Magneto-optical in Graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hwang and S. Das Sarma, “Dielectric function, screening, and plasmons in two-dimensional graphene,” Phys. Rev. B75, 205418 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, G. H. B. Dommett, K. M. Kohlhaas, E. J. Zimney, E. A. Stach, R. D. Piner, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene-based composite materials,” Nature442, 282–286 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Greens functions and guided surface waves on graphene,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 064302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1962

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg.17, 150–157 (1962).

1954

A. Yu. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Fields radiated by a nanoemitter in a graphene sheet,” Phys. Rev. B84, 195446 (2011).

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-Gonzlez, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Alù, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically-thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79, 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H. T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 101102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzlez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. G. de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature487, 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bartlett, P. N.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature487, 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnology6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehm, H. P.

H. P. Boehm, A. Clauss, G. O. Fischer, and U. Hofmann, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforschg.17, 150–157 (1962).

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320, 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, A. G.

T. V. Teperik, F. J. G. de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Commun.2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene,” Science312, 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245435 (2009).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the graphene micro-ribbon perfect absorber. The geometrical parameters of the proposed structure are: tF = 1 μm, d = 1 – 100 μm, WGR = 1 μm and P = 2 μm. The inset shows the honeycomb microscopic structure of the graphene layer arranged as micro-ribbons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the relative permittivity of a 1nm thick graphene sheet as function of frequency as well as chemical potential. (c) Absorption as a function of frequency (ω) and dielectric thickness (d) for a graphene micro-ribbon perfect absorber with chemical potential μc = 100meV at normal incidence. (d) Absorption as a function of frequency and chemical potential for graphene micro-ribbons perfect absorber with d = 4.7 μm at normal incidence. (e) and (f) show the absorption as a function of the angle of incidence with dielectric thickness d = 4.7 μm and d = 4.9 μm for the first and second mode, respectively. The insets show the electric field distribution Ey for both modes as well.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) show maximum absorption as a function of dielectric thickness and frequency calculated from semi-analytical approach (Airy formula) and full wave simulation (FMM) for the first and second mode, respectively. (c) and (d) show real and imaginary parts of direct reflection coefficient (r12) as well as multiple reflection coefficient (rm) with dielectric thickness d = 4.7 μm and d = 4.9 μm for the first and the second mode respectively. The red arrows represent the crossing point when real or imaginary parts of reflection coefficients has same magnitude with opposite sign (r12 = −rm).(e) Schematic of the asymmetric Fabry-Perot cavity with the definition of the multiple reflection and transmission coefficients involved and an indication on the contribution of the directly reflected light and the reflected light due to multiple scattering inside the Fabry-Perot cavity..

Equations (2)

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σ GR = i e 2 4 π h ¯ ln [ 2 | μ c | ( ω + i 2 Γ ) h ¯ 2 | μ c | + ( ω + i 2 Γ ) h ¯ ] + i e 2 k B T π h ¯ 2 ( ω + i 2 Γ ) [ μ c k B T + 2 ln ( e μ c / k B T + 1 ) ] ,
r = r 12 + r m = r 12 + t 12 t 21 r 23 e ( 2 i φ ) 1 r 21 r 23 e ( 2 i φ ) ,

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