Abstract

We investigate the performance and DSP resource requirements of digitally generated OFDM and sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses. The two multiplexing techniques are of interest as they offer highest spectral efficiency. The comparison aims at determining which technology performs better with limited processing capacities of state-of-the-art FPGAs. It is shown that a novel Nyquist pulse shaping technique, based on look-up tables requires lower resource count than equivalent IFFT-based OFDM signal generation while achieving similar performance with low inter-channel guard-bands in ultra-dense WDM. Our findings are based on a resource assessment of selected DSP implementations in terms of both simulations and experimental validations. The experiments were performed with real-time software-defined transmitters using a single or three optical carriers.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (4)

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (5)

S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 454–459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 494–501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Adhikari, S.

Andrekson, P. A.

Baeuerle, B.

Bao, H.

Bayvel, P.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Ezra, S.

Bosco, G.

Bouziane, R.

Carena, A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 454–459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cotter, D.

Curri, V.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A.

Forghieri, F.

Franchetti, F.

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fürst, C.

Hanik, N.

Herbst, S.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoe, J. C.

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holbein, L.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inan, B.

Jansen, S. L.

Johannisson, P.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kainzmaier, P.

Kaneda, N.

Karakaya, O.

Karlsson, M.

Killey, R. I.

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Ludwig, A.

Ma, Y.

S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 454–459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M.

Milder, P.

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milder, P. A.

Mocker, M.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

Püschel, M.

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Sjödin, M.

Spinnler, B.

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

von Kirchbauer, H.

Waegemans, R.

Watts, P.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S.

Wymeersch, H.

Yang, Q.

Zhao, J.

ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst. (1)

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Computer generation of hardware for linear digital signal processing transforms,” ACM Trans. Des. Autom. Electron. Syst.17(2), 1–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1180–1192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photon. J.2(3), 454–459 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (7)

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, D. Hillerkuss, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time OFDM transmitter beyond 100 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(13), 12740–12749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bouziane, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, P. A. Milder, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Generation and transmission of 85.4 Gb/s real-time 16QAM coherent optical OFDM signals over 400 km SSMF with preamble-less reception,” Opt. Express20(19), 21612–21617 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Inan, S. Adhikari, O. Karakaya, P. Kainzmaier, M. Mocker, H. von Kirchbauer, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “Real-time 93.8-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OFDM transmitter with 1024-point IFFT,” Opt. Express19(26), B64–B68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sjödin, P. Johannisson, H. Wymeersch, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Comparison of polarization-switched QPSK and polarization-multiplexed QPSK at 30 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express19(8), 7839–7846 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Waegemans, S. Herbst, L. Holbein, P. Watts, P. Bayvel, C. Fürst, and R. I. Killey, “10.7 Gb/s electronic predistortion transmitter using commercial FPGAs and D/A converters implementing real-time DSP for chromatic dispersion and SPM compensation,” Opt. Express17(10), 8630–8640 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Yoshida, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, and M. Nakazawa, “Real-time FPGA-based coherent optical receiver for 1 Gsymbol/s, 64 QAM transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuN3.

D. Qian, T. Kwok, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “41.25 Gb/s real-time OFDM receiver for variable rate WDM-OFDMA-PON transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDPD9.

R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, B. Nebendahl, D. Hillerkuss, B. Baeuerle, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “150 Gbit/s Real-Time Nyquist Pulse Transmission Over 150 km SSMF Enhanced by DSP with Dynamic Precision,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OM2A.6.

R. Schmogrow, R. Bouziane, M. Meyer, P. A. Milder, P. C. Schindler, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Digital Nyquist-WDM and OFDM Signal Generation: Spectral Efficiency Versus DSP Complexity,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication 2012, paper Mo.2.A.4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse shaping for ultra-dense WDM with enhanced SE. Independent and ICI-free channels are desired. (a) Multiband OFDM: Each channel comprises several electrically generated subcarriers. (b) Nyquist-WDM: Sinc-shaped pulses with rectangular spectrum. Both techniques efficiently use the available spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Digital signal processing blocks (DSP) implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) for (a) real-time OFDM and for (b) Nyquist sinc-pulse shaping. A pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) generator emulates payload data. A mapper (Map) translates binary data to QPSK/QAM symbols. The digital pulse shaping is either performed by an IFFT (OFDM) or by an FIR filter (Nyquist). Clipping blocks (C) limit the signal amplitudes to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio. Finally, 6-bit digital-to-analog converters (DAC) generate the output waveforms for subsequent IQ-modulation of the optical carrier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum and best achievable constellation diagram for simulated 16QAM OFDM. (a) Spectrum comprising 80 SCs used for data transmission and 4 pilot tones. (b) Constellation diagram comprising data of all 80 SCs. The minimum achievable EVM is 4.2%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of Nyquist sinc-pulses modulated with random 16QAM data. Results are obtained by VHDL simulations. Spectra shaped with an FIR filter (a) of order R = 32 and (b) of order R = 128.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for real-time OFDM and Nyquist pulse shaping measurements. Two software-defined transmitters generate either complex Nyquist sinc-pulses or OFDM data to be modulated onto three free-running ECL. The blue signal path marks polarization maintaining optics. A variable optical attenuator (VOA) varies the signal power before the first EDFA hence varying the OSNR. A standard 1 nm optical filter removes ASE away from the three channels. A second EDFA guarantees optimum input power to the Agilent optical modulation analyzer (OMA) where the signals are coherently received and processed offline.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EVM as a function of SNR for OFDM and Nyquist pulse shaping. Dashed lines mark a bit error ratio (BER) limit of 3 × 10−3. (a) QPSK encoded Nyquist sinc-pulses generated with different filter orders R (and different roll-off) perform equally well. OFDM transmission with QPSK modulation shows comparable quality as Nyquist pulse shaping. (b) For 16QAM, OFDM suffers from slightly higher implementation penalties than Nyquist pulse transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Back-to-back received constellation diagrams for 16QAM Nyquist pulse shaping and OFDM along with the EVM as a function of OFDM SC. (a) 16QAM Nyquist constellation diagram shows an EVM of 7.7%. (b) 16QAM OFDM constellation diagram of the 26th SC with an EVM of 7.2%. (c) EVM as a function of subcarrier number. SCs far away from the center show an increased EVM. The horizontal dashed line specifies a BER limit of 3 × 10−3 for hard decision forward error correction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three-channel WDM spectra with guard-bands of 5 GHz (left) and 500 MHz (right) for Nyquist pulse shaping with filter order R = 128 (top, blue) and OFDM (bottom, red).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured EVM penalty as a function of guard-band width to assess the potential SE of Nyquist pulse shaping and multiband OFDM. (a) Results for QPSK modulation show that even Nyquist pulse-shapers with low order R perform well. For OFDM, ICI occurs for guard-band widths < 3 GHz due to the smaller out-of-band suppression compared to Nyquist filtered signals. (b) Results for 16QAM confirm observations made for QPSK.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 FPGA resource utilization for complex signal generation

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