Abstract

There is a growing research interest in improving the energy efficiency of communication networks. In order to assess the impact of introducing new energy efficient technologies, an up-to-date estimate for the global electricity consumption in communication networks is needed. In this paper we consider the use phase electricity consumption of telecom operator networks, office networks and customer premises equipment. Our results show that the network electricity consumption is growing fast, at a rate of 10 % per year, and its relative contribution to the total worldwide electricity consumption has increased from 1.3% in 2007 to 1.8% in 2012. We estimate the worldwide electricity consumption of communication networks will exceed 350 TWh in 2012.

© 2012 OSA

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A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials14, 3–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Lanzisera, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, “Data network equipment energy use and savings potential in buildings,” Energy Efficiency5, 149–162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the internet,” IEEE Netw.25, 6 –12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker, “Roadmapping ICT: an absolute energy efficiency metric,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3, A49–A58 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 70 –77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Fehske, G. Fettweis, J. Malmodin, and G. Biczok, “The global footprint of mobile communications: the ecological and economic perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 55 –62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, and P. D. Magill, “A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment,” SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.38, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

“Co2 emissions from fuel combustion - highlights,” IEA (2010).

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2002

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, B.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Atkinson, G.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Ayre, R.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 70 –77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the internet,” IEEE Netw.25, 6 –12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 2391–2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baliga, J.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the internet,” IEEE Netw.25, 6 –12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 70 –77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 2391–2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bianzino, A. P.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials14, 3–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biczok, G.

A. Fehske, G. Fettweis, J. Malmodin, and G. Biczok, “The global footprint of mobile communications: the ecological and economic perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 55 –62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blume, O.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R.

S. Lanzisera, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, “Data network equipment energy use and savings potential in buildings,” Energy Efficiency5, 149–162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaudet, C.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials14, 3–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiaraviglio, L.

M. Marsan, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, and M. Meo, “Optimal energy savings in cellular access networks,” in “IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops,” (2009), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Ciullo, D.

M. Marsan, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, and M. Meo, “Optimal energy savings in cellular access networks,” in “IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops,” (2009), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Cremer, C.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Demeester, P.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Demeyer, S.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Deruyck, M.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Develder, C.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Dhoedt, B.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Eichhammer, W.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Fehske, A.

A. Fehske, G. Fettweis, J. Malmodin, and G. Biczok, “The global footprint of mobile communications: the ecological and economic perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 55 –62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the internet,” IEEE Netw.25, 6 –12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fettweis, G.

A. Fehske, G. Fettweis, J. Malmodin, and G. Biczok, “The global footprint of mobile communications: the ecological and economic perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 55 –62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

S. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, and P. D. Magill, “A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment,” SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.38, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Finnveden, G.

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friedewald, M.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Georgieff, P.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Goyal, S.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, K.

K. Hinton, J. Baliga, M. Feng, R. Ayre, and R. Tucker, “Power consumption and energy efficiency in the internet,” IEEE Netw.25, 6 –12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, and R. Tucker, “Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 70 –77 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, W. V. Sorin, and R. S. Tucker, “Energy consumption in optical IP networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 2391–2403 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huser, A.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Idzikowski, F.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, W.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawamoto, K.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koomey, J.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Korotky, S.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lannoo, B.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lanzisera, S.

S. Lanzisera, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, “Data network equipment energy use and savings potential in buildings,” Energy Efficiency5, 149–162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lundn, D.

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lvehagen, N.

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magill, P. D.

S. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, and P. D. Magill, “A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment,” SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.38, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malmodin, J.

A. Fehske, G. Fettweis, J. Malmodin, and G. Biczok, “The global footprint of mobile communications: the ecological and economic perspective,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 55 –62 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marsan, M.

M. Marsan, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, and M. Meo, “Optimal energy savings in cellular access networks,” in “IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops,” (2009), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Martens, L.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meier, A.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meo, M.

M. Marsan, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Ciullo, and M. Meo, “Optimal energy savings in cellular access networks,” in “IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops,” (2009), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Moberg, A.

J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, B.

S. Lanzisera, B. Nordman, and R. Brown, “Data network equipment energy use and savings potential in buildings,” Energy Efficiency5, 149–162 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parker, M. C.

M. C. Parker, “Roadmapping ICT: an absolute energy efficiency metric,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3, A49–A58 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, S.

S. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, and P. D. Magill, “A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment,” SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.38, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pickavet, M.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

Piette, M.

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puype, B.

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rieth-Hoerst, S.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Rossi, D.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials14, 3–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roth, K.

B. Urban, V. Tiefenbeck, and K. Roth, “Energy consumption of consumer electronics in U.S. homes in 2010.” Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (2011).

Rougier, J.-L.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials14, 3–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schlomann, B.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Sorin, W. V.

Suvakovic, D.

D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Vereecken, W.

W. Van Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photonic Netw Commun24, 86–102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
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M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

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D. Kilper, G. Atkinson, S. Korotky, S. Goyal, P. Vetter, D. Suvakovic, and O. Blume, “Power trends in communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.17, 275 –284 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Zoche, P.

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

Energy

K. Kawamoto, J. Koomey, B. Nordman, R. Brown, M. Piette, M. Ting, and A. Meier, “Electricity used by office equipment and network equipment in the US,” Energy27, 255–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Energy Efficiency

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[CrossRef]

IEA

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IEEE Commun. Mag.

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[CrossRef]

W. Vereecken, W. Van Heddeghem, M. Deruyck, B. Puype, B. Lannoo, W. Joseph, D. Colle, L. Martens, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption in telecommunication networks: overview and reduction strategies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.49, 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw.

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J. Malmodin, A. Moberg, D. Lundn, G. Finnveden, and N. Lvehagen, “Greenhouse gas emissions and operational electricity use in the ICT and entertainment & media sectors,” J. Ind. Ecol.14, 770–790 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.

S. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, and P. D. Magill, “A regression approach to infer electricity consumption of legacy telecom equipment,” SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev.38, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in “2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS ’08.”, (2008), December, pp. 1–3.

M. Webb, “Smart 2020: enabling the low carbon economy in the information age,” The Climate Group (2008).

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B. Urban, V. Tiefenbeck, and K. Roth, “Energy consumption of consumer electronics in U.S. homes in 2010.” Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (2011).

C. Cremer, W. Eichhammer, M. Friedewald, P. Georgieff, S. Rieth-Hoerst, B. Schlomann, P. Zoche, B. Aebischer, and A. Huser, “Energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Germany up to 2010: summary of the final report to the German federal ministry of economics and labour,” (2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operator sample selection for 2011: (a) number of subscriptions worlwide, (b) in the unscaled sample and (c) in the representative sample. The percentages are obtained by dividing the number of subscriptions per service in both samples by the worldwide number of subscriptions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Worldwide electricity consumption in telecom operator networks (columns, left axis) and sample representativity (markers, right axis).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Worldwide use phase electricity consumption of communication networks (columns, left axis) and share of networks in total worldwide electricity consumption (dotted line, right axis).

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Worldwide subscriptions (in millions). Sources: [13, 14]. Numbers for 2012 are extrapolations.

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Table 2 Office networks: cooling overhead factors and worldwide electricity use per type of equipment (electricity use estimates are adaptations of the values in [11]).

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Table 3 Calculation of the office network power consumption per computer based on our results, compared with values from [17].

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Table 4 Customer premises equipment: average power consumption per user, numbers of users and worldwide annual electricity use.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Estimates of network power consumption from previous studies [6, 7, 9, 10, 25]. Values between brackets are converted: for the Smart 2020 report the use phase CO2 values are converted assuming 500 gCO2/kWh, Kilper and Baliga’s power per user values are multiplied with our worldwide subscription numbers.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Maximize M S ( w ) = i = 1 n ( w i × m i )
subject to M S ( w ) M W = B S ( w ) B W = T S ( w ) T W
0 w i 1 ( i = 1 n )
P W = M W M S ( w ) × P S ( w ) = M W M S ( w ) × i = 1 n ( w i × p i )

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