Abstract

The 11-Gbps 80-km transmission performance of a zero-chirp silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator has been characterized. The zero-chirp characteristic of the silicon modulator is confirmed in the constellation measurement, and gives high tolerance both for positive and negative chromatic dispersion. A low-dispersion-penalty transmission up to 80km using the 11-Gbps non return-to-zero on-off-keying format is confirmed via bit-error-rate measurements with a performance comparable to that of a commercial lithium-niobate modulator. The dispersion tolerance at 2-dB power penalty for a bit-error-rate of 10−3 is more than ± 950 ps/nm. Further, 22.3-Gbps binary phase-shift-keying is demonstrated, and the back-to-back power penalty with respect to the lithium-niobate modulator is less than 0.5dB.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 115–130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. D’Andrea, presented in Market Watch Panel III, OFC/NFOEC2009 March 22–26, 2009.
  9. P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Amsterdam, Netherland, 2012), Th3B1.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y.-T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0-12.5 Gbps,” Opt. Express19(26), B26–B31 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, S. Manipatruni, N. Ophir, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators,” Opt. Express18(15), 15544–15552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balsamo, S.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bravetti, P.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y.-T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0-12.5 Gbps,” Opt. Express19(26), B26–B31 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fournier, M.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Ghislotti, G.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goi, K.

Grosse, P.

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

Jiang, X.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, Y. S.

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y.-T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0-12.5 Gbps,” Opt. Express19(26), B26–B31 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y.-T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0-12.5 Gbps,” Opt. Express19(26), B26–B31 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

K. Ogawa, K. Goi, Y.-T. Tan, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, Q. Fang, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator of extinction ratio beyond 10 dB at 10.0-12.5 Gbps,” Opt. Express19(26), B26–B31 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mizuhara, O.

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, K.

Ophir, N.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. K.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.-T.

Thomson, D. J.

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

Tzeng, L. D.

Wang, M.

Watts, M. R.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Winzer, P. J.

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and Y.-K. Chen, “Chirp and dispersion tolerance of a single-drive push–pull silicon modulator at 28 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(11), 936–938 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Long-distance demonstration and modeling of low-power silicon microdisk modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 819–821 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (4)

Other (2)

D. D’Andrea, presented in Market Watch Panel III, OFC/NFOEC2009 March 22–26, 2009.

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Amsterdam, Netherland, 2012), Th3B1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view of the silicon MZM with phase shifter design and (b) experimental setup for push-pull operation and BER measurement

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constellation diagrams of 11.1-Gbps NRZ-OOK modulation using (a) Si MZM and (b) LN MZM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Eye diagram and (b) BER measurement up to 80-km SMF transmission at 10-Gbps OOK for Si MZM and (c) dispersion penalty at BER 10−3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relation between (a) applied bias and phase shift, (b) phase shift and loss change, and (c) estimated constellation diagrams, and (d) simulated path penalty for positive and negative dispersion parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Constellation diagram of 22.3-Gbps NRZ-BPSK using Si MZM and (b) back-to-back BER of the 22.3-Gbps NRZ-BPSK format.

Equations (1)

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E= E i /2 exp(j φ c α c )[ exp(jΔ φ A Δ α A +j φ d )+exp(jΔ φ B Δ α B ) ],

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