Abstract

We investigate the effects of different phase noise processes of SGDBR laser on coherent systems. The SGDBR device operated well with QPSK modulation at 5 Gbaud, while the performance of 16-QAM was significantly degraded due to excess noise. The white FM noise mainly defines the ultimate performance of coherent reception, but the low frequency excess noise can potentially degrade the performance of systems that employ 16-QAM format at 5 Gbaud.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated 200-km transmission of 40-Gbit/s 16-QAM signals using digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express17(3), 1435–1441 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, G. Charlet, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a novel high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 532–536 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and P. J. Winzer, “Fast-tuning 224-Gb/s Intradyne receiver for optical packet networks,” PDPP5, OFC 2010.
  4. L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 988–999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kikuchi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(5), 5291–5302 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Nakagawa, M. Matsui, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, R. Kudo, M. Mizoguchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “Non-Data-Aided Wide-Range Frequency Offset Estimator for QAM Optical Coherent Receivers,” OMJ1, OFC 2011.
  9. U. Mengali and A. N. D’Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).
  10. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, and L. L. Buhl, “Spectral efficiency long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s Polarization-Multiplexed 16 QAM,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 547–556 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(11), 1597–1607 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 989–999 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Nakagawa, G. Fish, A. Dahl, P. Koh, C. Schow, M. Mack, L. Wang, and R, Yu, “Phase noise of widely-tunable SG-DBR laser,” ThF2, OFC 2003.
  15. R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J. Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, G. Charlet, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a novel high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 532–536 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, “Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(5), 5291–5302 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2003 (1)

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akulova, Y. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, M.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bingo, D.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Charlet, G.

Chen, J.

Coldren, C.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahl, A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dupuy, J. Y.

Fatadin, I.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fish, G. A.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, T. N.

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, K.

Ives, D.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, F.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kam, P. Y.

Katoh, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Konczykowska, A.

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larson, M. C.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liljeberg, T.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Magarini, M.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Nakagawa, S.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L.

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

Peckham, D. W.

Penniman, S.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

Ramadas, N.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riet, M.

Savory, S. J.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wipiejewski, T.

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, S.

Zhu, B.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 988–999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. N. Huynh, L. Nguyen, and L. P. Barry, “Delayed self-heterodyne phase noise measurements with coherent phase modulation detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 249–251 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error Vector Magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. C. Larson, Y. A. Akulova, C. Coldren, T. Liljeberg, G. A. Fish, S. Nakagawa, A. Dahl, P. Kozodoy, D. Bingo, M. Bao, N. Ramadas, S. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “High Performance widely-Tunable SG-DBR Lasers,” Proc. SPIE4995, 66–80 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Nakagawa, M. Matsui, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, R. Kudo, M. Mizoguchi, and Y. Miyamoto, “Non-Data-Aided Wide-Range Frequency Offset Estimator for QAM Optical Coherent Receivers,” OMJ1, OFC 2011.

U. Mengali and A. N. D’Andrea, Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers (Plenum Press, 1997).

S. Nakagawa, G. Fish, A. Dahl, P. Koh, C. Schow, M. Mack, L. Wang, and R, Yu, “Phase noise of widely-tunable SG-DBR laser,” ThF2, OFC 2003.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and P. J. Winzer, “Fast-tuning 224-Gb/s Intradyne receiver for optical packet networks,” PDPP5, OFC 2010.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup for coherent communication system (a), block diagram for signal processing offline (b), and decision-directed phase-locked loop carrier phase recovery (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase noise of DFB lasers and SGDBR laser: Power spectral density of received E-field (a), Phase-error variance (b), and FM-noise spectrum (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiver sensitivity for SGDBR laser with QPSK at 5Gbaud (a) and received symbol constellations when biasing gain section only (b), biasing all sections (c) at same received power (−28dBm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of DFB lasers for 16-QAM system at 5 Gbaud (a) and time-resolved BER of 16-QAM with SGDBR (2-μs long data blocks) (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of constellations at point t = 12μs (a), at point t = 18μs (b); and error vector magnitudes at point t = 12μs (c), at point t = 18μs (d) from Fig. 4 for SGDBR laser with only gain section biased

Equations (1)

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EV M RMS [%]= 1 N n=1 N | S Rx,n S Tx,n | 2 1 N n=1 N | S Tx,n | 2 ×100%

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