Abstract

A high-sensitivity optical time-domain reflectometry based on Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in polarization-maintaining fibers, where a single-end access to a fiber under test is applied with co-propagation of pump and probe pulses for the operation of BDG. Distributed measurements of the BDG spectra are presented with 80 cm spatial resolution in 935 m range, showing strain and temperature sensitivities of 1.37 MHz/με and −57.48 MHz/°C, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

Antman, Y.

Bao, X.

Bernini, R.

Chen, L.

Chin, S.

Dong, Y.

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Minardo, A.

Primerov, N.

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Song, K. Y.

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Yoon, H. J.

Zadok, A.

Zeni, L.

Zhou, D. P.

Zou, W.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) ordinary BOTDR, and (b) BDG-OTDR: PBS, polarization beam splitter; PD, photo detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the BDG-OTDR: LD, laser diode; EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; DAQ, data acquisition module.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Oscilloscope traces of the pump and the probe pulses measured at the end of the FUT (b) Reflection spectra from the FUT measured by an optical spectrum analyzer located after EDFA3. The black and the gray curves correspond to the cases of the probe in and out of the BDG spectrum, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Trace examples at different Δf’s in distributed measurements of the BDG spectra by BDG-OTDR. (b) 3D-distribution of the measured BDG spectra along the FUT. The inset is the BDG spectra near the front (26 m) and the rear (888 m) ends. Note z-axis corresponds to the signal amplitude. (c) The maximum amplitude of the BDG spectrum according to position. Note that the red curve is the result of exponential fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Distribution map of Δν obtained by the BDG-OTDR. (b) Zoomed view near the 1 m test section (dashed box in (a)) with different strain applied (0 ~200 με). (c) Shifts of Δν from the first measurement (0 με). (d) Zoomed view of the dashed box in (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The BDG spectra (top) and the shift of Δν (bottom) of the 1 m test section measured by BDG-OTDR according to (a) temperature, and (b) strain. Note that the red line is the result of linear fit for each.

Equations (3)

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S P pump 2 P probe w pump w probe
P th = 21 A eff g B L eff
Δν= Δn n g ν

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