Abstract

In this work, we report the experimental observation of supercontinua generation in two kinds of suspended-core microstructured soft-glass optical fibers. Low loss, highly nonlinear, tellurite and As2S3 chalcogenide fibers have been fabricated and pumped close to their zero-dispersion wavelength in the femtosecond regime by means of an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Ti:Sapphire laser. When coupled into the fibers, the femtosecond pulses result in 2000-nm bandwidth supercontinua reaching the Mid-Infrared region and extending from 750 nm to 2.8 µm in tellurite fibers and 1 µm to 3.2 µm in chalcogenide fibers, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As2S3 taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Granzow, S. P. Stark, M. A. Schmidt, A. S. Tverjanovich, L. Wondraczek, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express19(21), 21003–21010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 microm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 2015–2017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Design of zero chromatic dispersion chalcogenide As2S3 glass nanofibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(12), 2095–2099 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Tellurite microstructure fibers with small hexagonal core for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express17(14), 12174–12182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, A. Zhang, E. J. Bushong, and J. Toulouse, “Solid-core tellurite glass fiber for infrared and nonlinear applications,” Opt. Express17(19), 16716–16721 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, and T. Misumi, “Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17(24), 21608–21614 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, C. Rivero, T. Cardinal, M. Couzi, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Raman gain of selected tellurite glasses for IR fibre lasers calculated from spontaneous scattering spectra,” Opt. Mater.30(6), 946–951 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express16(10), 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Supercontinuum generation in dispersion engineered highly nonlinear (γ = 10 /W/m) As2S3 chalcogenide planar waveguide,” Opt. Express16(19), 14938–14944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Churbanov, A. N. Moiseev, A. V. Chilyasov, V. V. Dorofeev, I. A. Kraev, M. M. Lipatova, T. V. Kotereva, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. B. Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with reduced content of OH groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3229–3234 (2007).

C. Xia, M. Kumar, M.-Y. Cheng, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, A. Galvanauskas, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, “Supercontinuum generation in silica fibers by amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 789–797 (2007).

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. George, J. Knight, and P. Russell, “Tellurite photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express11(20), 2641–2645 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germane-tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids281(1-3), 48–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1990

V. G. Borisevich, V. G. Plotnichenko, I. V. Scripachev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Extinction coefficient of SH groups in vitreous arsenic sulphide,” Russ. High Purity Substances J.4, 759–762 (1990).

1982

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH-free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. J. Kobliska and S. A. Solin, “Temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum and the depolarization spectrum of armophous As2S3,” Phys. Rev. B8(2), 756–768 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

L. Nemec and J. Gotz, “Infrared Absorption of OH- in E Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.53(9), 526 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Adam, J. L.

J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J.-L.

L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agger, C.

Baker, N. J.

Banaei, E.-H.

Bang, O.

Barviau, B.

Birks, T. A.

Bookey, H. T.

R. Buczynski, H. T. Bookey, D. Pysz, R. Stepien, I. Kujawa, J. E. McCarthy, A. J. Waddie, A. K. Kar, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.5μm in photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-galate glass,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 666–672 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borisevich, V. G.

V. G. Borisevich, V. G. Plotnichenko, I. V. Scripachev, and M. F. Churbanov, “Extinction coefficient of SH groups in vitreous arsenic sulphide,” Russ. High Purity Substances J.4, 759–762 (1990).

Boulanger, B.

Brambilla, G.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
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L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
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J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
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J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
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L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
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Cheng, M.-Y.

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Churbanov, M. F.

M. F. Churbanov, A. N. Moiseev, A. V. Chilyasov, V. V. Dorofeev, I. A. Kraev, M. M. Lipatova, T. V. Kotereva, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. B. Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with reduced content of OH groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3229–3234 (2007).

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Coulombier, Q.

J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
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L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
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Couzi, M.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, C. Rivero, T. Cardinal, M. Couzi, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Raman gain of selected tellurite glasses for IR fibre lasers calculated from spontaneous scattering spectra,” Opt. Mater.30(6), 946–951 (2008).
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Dekker, S. A.

Desevedavy, F.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
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J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
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I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
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M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
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J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
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L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
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M. F. Churbanov, A. N. Moiseev, A. V. Chilyasov, V. V. Dorofeev, I. A. Kraev, M. M. Lipatova, T. V. Kotereva, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. B. Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with reduced content of OH groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3229–3234 (2007).

Domachuk, P.

Dorofeev, V. V.

M. F. Churbanov, A. N. Moiseev, A. V. Chilyasov, V. V. Dorofeev, I. A. Kraev, M. M. Lipatova, T. V. Kotereva, E. M. Dianov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. B. Kryukova, “Production of high-purity TeO2-ZnO and TeO2-WO3 glasses with reduced content of OH groups,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3229–3234 (2007).

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Dudley, J. M.

I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
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El-Amraoui, M.

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J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
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M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
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M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
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Fanjoux, G.

Fatome, J.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
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I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
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M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
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M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
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J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
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J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
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Finsterbusch, K.

Flanagan, J. C.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
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Freeman, M. J.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, M.-Y. Cheng, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, A. Galvanauskas, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, “Supercontinuum generation in silica fibers by amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 789–797 (2007).

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
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Fuchs, E.

Furniss, D.

M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, C. Rivero, T. Cardinal, M. Couzi, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Raman gain of selected tellurite glasses for IR fibre lasers calculated from spontaneous scattering spectra,” Opt. Mater.30(6), 946–951 (2008).
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I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express18(25), 26655–26665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
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Galvanauskas, A.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, M.-Y. Cheng, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, A. Galvanauskas, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, “Supercontinuum generation in silica fibers by amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 789–797 (2007).

Gao, W.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
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Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germane-tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids281(1-3), 48–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanawa, F.

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH-free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Horak, P.

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 738–749 (2007).
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Houizot, P.

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Troles, L. Brilland, F. Smektala, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, N. Traynor, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J. L. Adam, and G. Renversez, “Chalcogenide microstructured fibers for infrared systems, elaboration modelization, and characterization,” Fiber Integrated Opt.28(1), 11–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Brilland, J. Troles, P. Houizot, F. Désévédavy, Q. Coulombier, G. Renversez, T. Chartier, T. N. Nguyen, J.-L. Adam, and N. Traynor, “Interfaces impact on the transmission of chalcogenides photonic crystal fibres,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1024–1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hudson, D. D.

Islam, M. N.

C. Xia, M. Kumar, M.-Y. Cheng, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, A. Galvanauskas, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, D. A. Nolan, and W. A. Wood, “Supercontinuum generation in silica fibers by amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 789–797 (2007).

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 microm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Joly, N. Y.

Judge, A. C.

Jules, J. C.

Jules, J.-C.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
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R. Buczynski, H. T. Bookey, D. Pysz, R. Stepien, I. Kujawa, J. E. McCarthy, A. J. Waddie, A. K. Kar, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.5μm in photonic crystal fiber made of lead-bismuth-galate glass,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 666–672 (2010).
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Kaufman, J. J.

Keiding, S. R.

Kibler, B.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. El-Amraoui, J.-C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, and F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett.47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Savelii, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, M. El-Amraoui, N. Manikandan, X. Zheng, F. Désévédavy, J. M. Dudley, J. Troles, L. Brilland, G. Renversez, and F. Smektala, “Suspended core tellurite glass optical fibers for infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mater.33(11), 1661–1666 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(5), 4547–4556 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fatome, C. Fortier, T. N. Nguyen, T. Chartier, F. Smektala, K. Messaad, B. Kibler, S. Pitois, G. Gadret, C. Finot, J. Troles, F. Desevedavy, P. Houizot, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, and N. Traynor, “Linear and nonlinear characterizations of chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1707–1715 (2009).
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M. D. O’Donnell, K. Richardson, R. Stolen, C. Rivero, T. Cardinal, M. Couzi, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Raman gain of selected tellurite glasses for IR fibre lasers calculated from spontaneous scattering spectra,” Opt. Mater.30(6), 946–951 (2008).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of the tellurite bulk as a function of wavelength measured on a 4-mm thick sample. Glass casted under room atmosphere (red solid line), glass casted under dry atmosphere in a glove box (blue solid line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Profile of the tellurite fiber captured by means of a scanning electron microscope. (b) Fiber losses as a function of wavelength measured on a quasi mono-index fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromatic dispersion curve of the suspended-core tellurite fiber. Circle: experimental data, solid-line: numerical modeling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Profile of the chalcogenide As2S3 suspended-core fiber captured by means of a scanning electron microscope (b) Fiber losses of the quasi mono-index chalcogenide fiber as a function of wavelength (solid-line) and losses of the suspended core fiber measured at fixed wavelengths 1.06 and 1.55 µm (Triangles). Note that the absorption peak around 3.4 µm is not related to the transmission of our fiber (i.e., artefact of our experimental setup).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chromatic dispersion curve of the suspended-core chalcogenide fiber. Circles: experimental data, solid-line: numerical modeling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental set-up used to generate supercontinua in tellurite and chalcogenide suspended-core fibers. FUT: Fiber under test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental recording of supercontinua generation in a 40-cm long suspended-core Tellurite fiber as a function of pump power. (b) Corresponding numerical simulations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Modeled group index curve as a function of wavelength for the suspended-core tellurite fiber (red solid line) as well as experimental short and long wavelength edges of resulting supercontinua as a function of average power (circles).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental recording of supercontinuum generation in a 45-mm long sample of suspended-core chalcogenide fiber for a pump power of 70 mW (b) Corresponding numerical simulation (c) Corresponding numerical simulation without OH- and SH- groups absorption peaks.

Equations (1)

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N OH = N A εL ln( 1 T )

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