Abstract

A new instrument for measuring the full radiance distribution in the ocean interior is introduced. The system is based on CMOS technology to achieve intra-scene dynamic range of 6 decades and system dynamic range of more than 9 decades. The spatial resolution is nominally 0.5 degrees with a temporal frame rate between 1 and 15 frames per second. The general instrumentation, detailed calibration, and a characterization of the system are described. Validity of the camera systems is demonstrated by comparison of the radiance measurements with other classical oceanographic radiometers.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 231.
  2. N. G. Johnson and G. Liljequist, “On the angular distributions of submarine daylight and on the total submarine illumination,” Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.14, 1–15 (1938).
  3. H. Pettersson, “Measurements of the angular distribution of submarine light,” Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer.108, 7–12 (1938).
  4. L. V. Whitney, “The angular distribution of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res.4, 122–131 (1941).
  5. J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in the submarine environment,” SIO Ref. 58–25(1958).
  6. T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).
  7. N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus12(3), 348–355 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Lundgren and N. K. Højerslev, “Daylight measurements in the Sargasso sea. Results from the ‘Dana’ expedition (January-April 1966),” 14 (Department of Physical Oceanography, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1971).
  9. K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic fisheye camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.6(4), 652–662 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Gershun, “The light field (translated in English by P. Moon and G. Timoshenko),” J. Math. Phys.18, 51–151 (1939).
  12. S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).
  13. E. Aas and N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.104(C4), 8015–8024 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Smith, R. W. Austin, and J. E. Tyler, “An oceanographic radiance distribution camera system,” Appl. Opt.9(9), 2015–2022 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. C. Smith, “Structure of solar radiation in the upper layers of the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography N.G. Jerlov and E.S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic Press, London and New York, 1974), pp. 95–119.
  16. K. J. Voss and A. Chapin, “Upwelling radiance distribution camera system, NURADS,” Opt. Express13(11), 4250–4262 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Miyamoto, “Fish eye lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.54(8), 1060–1061 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).
  22. F. E. Nicodemus, Self-study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements: Part I - Concepts, Chapters 4 and 5 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978), p. 118.
  23. H. Du and K. J. Voss, “Effects of point-spread function on calibration and radiometric accuracy of CCD camera,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 665–670 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. H. Waterman, “Polarization patterns in submarine illumination,” Science120(3127), 927–932 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. L. Wyatt, V. Privalsky, and R. Datla, Recommended Practice: Symbols, Terms, Units and Uncertainty Analysis for Radiometric Sensor Calibration (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 120.
  27. K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy41(4), 387–392 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.45(9), 1393–1410 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

H. Du and K. J. Voss, “Effects of point-spread function on calibration and radiometric accuracy of CCD camera,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 665–670 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Aas and N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.104(C4), 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.45(9), 1393–1410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).

1989

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic fisheye camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy41(4), 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1970

1964

1960

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus12(3), 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

1955

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

1954

T. H. Waterman, “Polarization patterns in submarine illumination,” Science120(3127), 927–932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1941

L. V. Whitney, “The angular distribution of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res.4, 122–131 (1941).

1939

A. A. Gershun, “The light field (translated in English by P. Moon and G. Timoshenko),” J. Math. Phys.18, 51–151 (1939).

1938

N. G. Johnson and G. Liljequist, “On the angular distributions of submarine daylight and on the total submarine illumination,” Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.14, 1–15 (1938).

H. Pettersson, “Measurements of the angular distribution of submarine light,” Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer.108, 7–12 (1938).

Aas, E.

E. Aas and N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.104(C4), 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. C. Smith, R. W. Austin, and J. E. Tyler, “An oceanographic radiance distribution camera system,” Appl. Opt.9(9), 2015–2022 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

Boileau, A. R.

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

Chapin, A.

Clark, D. K.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy41(4), 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.45(9), 1393–1410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

Feinholz, M.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flora, S.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, M.

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus12(3), 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Gershun, A. A.

A. A. Gershun, “The light field (translated in English by P. Moon and G. Timoshenko),” J. Math. Phys.18, 51–151 (1939).

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy41(4), 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Højerslev, N. K.

E. Aas and N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.104(C4), 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, J. E.

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus12(3), 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

N. G. Johnson and G. Liljequist, “On the angular distributions of submarine daylight and on the total submarine illumination,” Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.14, 1–15 (1938).

Lazin, G.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).

Liljequist, G.

N. G. Johnson and G. Liljequist, “On the angular distributions of submarine daylight and on the total submarine illumination,” Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.14, 1–15 (1938).

Mazel, C. H.

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

Mobley, C. D.

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

Oshiba, G.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

Pettersson, H.

H. Pettersson, “Measurements of the angular distribution of submarine light,” Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer.108, 7–12 (1938).

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

Smith, R. C.

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).

R. C. Smith, R. W. Austin, and J. E. Tyler, “An oceanographic radiance distribution camera system,” Appl. Opt.9(9), 2015–2022 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolski, M.

M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.45(9), 1393–1410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C. C.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, J. E.

R. C. Smith, R. W. Austin, and J. E. Tyler, “An oceanographic radiance distribution camera system,” Appl. Opt.9(9), 2015–2022 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

Uhl, R. J.

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

van Dommelen, R.

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and A. Chapin, “Upwelling radiance distribution camera system, NURADS,” Opt. Express13(11), 4250–4262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Du and K. J. Voss, “Effects of point-spread function on calibration and radiometric accuracy of CCD camera,” Appl. Opt.43(3), 665–670 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic fisheye camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

Waterman, T. H.

T. H. Waterman, “Polarization patterns in submarine illumination,” Science120(3127), 927–932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, K. J.

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).

Wei, J.

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Whitney, L. V.

L. V. Whitney, “The angular distribution of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res.4, 122–131 (1941).

Yarbrough, M.

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic fisheye camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biogeosciences

K. J. Voss, A. Morel, and D. Antoine, “Detailed validation of the birectional effect in various case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery,” Biogeosciences4(5), 781–789 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.45(9), 1393–1410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. Mueller, and G. Lazin, “Characterization of the immersion factor for a series of in-water optical radiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.21(3), 501–514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, S. McLean, M. R. Lewis, C. Johnson, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, M. Yarbrough, C. C. Trees, M. S. Twardowski, and D. K. Clark, “An example crossover experiment for testing new vicarious calibration techniques for satellite ocean color radiometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.27(10), 1747–1759 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, “Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic fisheye camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

E. Aas and N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.104(C4), 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. Wei, R. van Dommelen, and K. J. Voss, “Quantitative estimation of the underwater radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H06 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki, D. Stramski, and M. Sokolski, “Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by sea surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system,” J. Geophys. Res.116, C00H09 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

L. V. Whitney, “The angular distribution of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res.4, 122–131 (1941).

J. Math. Phys.

A. A. Gershun, “The light field (translated in English by P. Moon and G. Timoshenko),” J. Math. Phys.18, 51–151 (1939).

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn

T. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, G. Oshiba, and N. Okami, “Measurements of angular distribution of submarine daylight by means of a new instrument,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn14, 47–52 (1958).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

S. Q. Duntley, R. J. Uhl, R. W. Austin, A. R. Boileau, and J. E. Tyler, “An underwater photometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.45, 904A (1955).

K. Miyamoto, “Fish eye lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.54(8), 1060–1061 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

K. J. Voss, C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, J. E. Ivey, and C. H. Mazel, “The spectral upwelling radiance distribution in optically shallow waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(1_part_2), 364–373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, and M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.)3, 18–21 (1990).

Opt. Express

Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer.

H. Pettersson, “Measurements of the angular distribution of submarine light,” Rapp. Cons. Explor. Mer.108, 7–12 (1938).

Science

T. H. Waterman, “Polarization patterns in submarine illumination,” Science120(3127), 927–932 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy

A. W. Harrison and C. A. Coombes, “An opaque cloud cover model of sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy41(4), 387–392 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.

N. G. Johnson and G. Liljequist, “On the angular distributions of submarine daylight and on the total submarine illumination,” Sven. Hydrogr. - Biol. Komm. Skr., Ny Ser. Hydrogr.14, 1–15 (1938).

Tellus

N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, “Radiance distribution in the upper layers of the sea,” Tellus12(3), 348–355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Lundgren and N. K. Højerslev, “Daylight measurements in the Sargasso sea. Results from the ‘Dana’ expedition (January-April 1966),” 14 (Department of Physical Oceanography, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1971).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 231.

J. E. Tyler, “Radiance distribution as a function of depth in the submarine environment,” SIO Ref. 58–25(1958).

F. E. Nicodemus, Self-study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements: Part I - Concepts, Chapters 4 and 5 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1978), p. 118.

R. C. Smith, “Structure of solar radiation in the upper layers of the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography N.G. Jerlov and E.S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic Press, London and New York, 1974), pp. 95–119.

C. L. Wyatt, V. Privalsky, and R. Datla, Recommended Practice: Symbols, Terms, Units and Uncertainty Analysis for Radiometric Sensor Calibration (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 120.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the geometry for measuring directional radiance. Camera with fisheye lens maps the radiance L(θ,φ) in one hemispheric space onto the image plane, which is defined by pixel (x',y').

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Camera components and configuration. (a) Schematic of the optical system including the fisheye lens and optical relay. (b) Picture of the assembled optical system with the CMOS camera. (c) Picture of the customized camera- head electronics. The silver rectangular box in (c) is the fiber transceiver.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiance distribution camera systems. (a) Profiling camera. The downwelling camera is on the top and the upwelling camera is at the bottom; OCR-504I/R radiometers are installed on the left wing and the CTD is on the right wing. (b) Sky camera mounted on a tripod. (c) Self-logging underwater radiance camera mounted in a cage. Image courtesy of Satlantic LP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup.(a) The pixel array receives the light emitting from the 1000 w FEL lamp. (b) The pixel array is scanned with the laser beam. (c) The assembled camera receives light from the integrating sphere. The experimental components consist of 1) the bare imager, 2) neutral density filter, 3) light baffle, 4) FEL lamp, 5) Helium-Neon laser, 6) XYZ translator, 7) integrating sphere, 8) arc lamp, 9) assembled camera and 10) rotation stage; 1') shows the same bare imager mounted at a distance different from that indicated by 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration data of the radiance camera. (a) HDR response functions. Example model fitting to the high-radiance exposure data has been demonstrated used solid and dotted lines alternatively. (b) Geometric calibration data. (c) Measured point spread function. (d) Measured immersion factor (of self-logging camera) with viewing directions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the radiance measurements (555 nm). The data were collected from the RadCam and the HyperOCR radiometer in the lab. Three exposure settings are tested for different intensities of light source. Note that all these data points have been used for the regression analysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured radiance distribution (555 nm) under a sunny sky. (a) Solar zenith angle θs = 40°; data measured on June 11, 2010, 13:36 UTC; the linear fitting equation is log10Y = 0.983 × log10X + 0.032, R2 = 0.916, N = 2205. (b) Solar zenith angle θs = 23.5°; data measured on June 11, 2010, 15:28 UTC; the linear fitting equation is log10Y = 0.974 × log10X + 0.190, R2 = 0.927, N = 1785.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example measurements of radiance distribution. (a) The radiance distribution of the whole sky including the sun. The imaged was shot in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on June 11, 2011, at 13:15 pm UTC (10:15 am local time), at an altitude 65 m above the sea surface. (b) The radiance distribution within sea surface water. The data was collected in the Pacific Ocean (155°58′ W, 19°15′ N) on August 27, 2009, 20:40 UTC, when the sky was sunny and the sea waves were less than 0.5 m high; the sampling water depth was at 5 m (wind speed 1.5 m/s).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of sky radiance measurements (555 nm). (a) Sky radiance in the almucantar. The data were collected at 13:15 UTC, June 11, 2010, on campus of Dalhousie University, Halifax, with an elevation of 65 m above the sea level. (b) Sky radiance in the principal plane. The data were measured at 13:24 UTC, June 11, 2010, at the same location.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the camera measurements with the OCR-504 radiometer measurements (555 nm) under sunny skies. (a) Example depth profiles of the downwelling plane irradiance Ed. (b) Example depth profiles of the upwelling nadir radiance Lu. (c) Scatter plots of the downwelling plane irradiance retrieved from measured depth profiles; the best fit is given as log10Y = 0.992 × log10X + 0.009, R2 = 0.938, N = 2189. (d) Scatter plots of the upwelling nadir radiance from retrieved depth profiles; the best fit is log10Y = 1.025 × log10X + 0.006, R2 = 0.990, N = 2211.These data were collected from surface down to 40 m in Pacific Ocean off the Big Island of Hawaii, during August 27 to September 14, 2010.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty of the sensor responsivity as determined from the radiance measurements (555 nm).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Large scale uniformity determined as the relative uncertainty of radiance measurements (555 nm) in ten different field angles from 2° to 86°.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r=αθ
L(λ)=f[ s(λ) ]
dΩ(i,j)= π l ij D sin( π l ij D )dA
L=f[s] I f ρ 1 PSF ¯
SMAPD= 1 N t=1 N | A t F t | (| A t |+| F t |)/2 ×100%

Metrics