Abstract

A simple approach for preparing gradient polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) with a large refractive index change is demonstrated. To control the effective refractive index at a given cell position, we applied a voltage to a homogeneous cell containing LC/diacrylate monomer mixture to generate the desired tilt angle and then stabilize the LC orientation with UV-induced polymer network. By varying the applied voltage along with the cells’ movement, a PNLC with a gradient refractive index distribution is obtained. In comparison with conventional approaches using patterned photomask or electrode, our method offers following advantages: large refractive index change, freedom to design specific index profile, and large panel capability. Potential applications include tunable-focus lenses, prism gratings, phase modulators, and other adaptive photonic devices.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, “Compact optical-fiber variable attenuator arrays with polymer-network liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.40(21), 3509–3517 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and A. Tork, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal for tunable microlens applications,” Opt. Express10(17), 865–870 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using gradient polymer network liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 22–24 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. S. Ji, J. H. Kim, and S. Kumar, “Electrically controllable microlens array fabricated by anisotropic phase separation from liquid-crystal and polymer composite materials,” Opt. Lett.28(13), 1147–1149 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Lin, J.-M. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, J. S.-C. Jeng, and C.-C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express16, 1777–1785 (2008).
  13. G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, “Bright color optical switching device by polymer network liquid crystal with a specular reflector,” Opt. Express19(14), 13097–13104 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
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  17. J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Display Technol.8(2), 87–90 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

G. H. Lee, K. Y. Hwang, J. E. Jang, Y. W. Jin, S. Y. Lee, and J. E. Jung, “Bright color optical switching device by polymer network liquid crystal with a specular reflector,” Opt. Express19(14), 13097–13104 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using gradient polymer network liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3168–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Ji, J. H. Kim, and S. Kumar, “Electrically controllable microlens array fabricated by anisotropic phase separation from liquid-crystal and polymer composite materials,” Opt. Lett.28(13), 1147–1149 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. Presnyakov, K. Asatryan, T. Galstian, and A. Tork, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal for tunable microlens applications,” Opt. Express10(17), 865–870 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

K. Hirabayashi, M. Wada, and C. Amano, “Compact optical-fiber variable attenuator arrays with polymer-network liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.40(21), 3509–3517 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Aizawa, M.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

Asatryan, K.

Boots, H. M. J.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3168–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujisawa, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. D.

Hikmet, R. A. M.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirabayashi, K.

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, K. Y.

Ikeda, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. E.

Jeng, J. S.-C.

Ji, H. S.

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. W.

Jung, J. E.

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kemperman, H.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

Kumar, S.

Lee, B.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. H.

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. N.

S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

Li, Y.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, J.-M. Yang, Y.-R. Lin, J. S.-C. Jeng, and C.-C. Liao, “A polarizer-free flexible and reflective electro-optical switch using dye-doped liquid crystal gels,” Opt. Express16, 1777–1785 (2008).

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-R.

Masuda, S.

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nose, T.

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Presnyakov, V.

Ramsey, R. A.

Rao, L.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3168–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using gradient polymer network liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sprunt, S.

S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Sutherland, S. L.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tork, A.

Wada, M.

Wu, S. T.

J. Sun, R. A. Ramsey, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response sheared polymer network liquid crystals for display applications,” J. Display Technol.8(2), 87–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using gradient polymer network liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3168–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.-K.

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-M.

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and S. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using gradient polymer network liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(19), 3168–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang, L.-C. Chien, and J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze‐free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Optical properties of a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1251–L1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. N. Lee, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Morphology-dependent switching of polymer stabilized cholesteric gratings,” Liq. Cryst.28(4), 637–641 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

H.-K. Lee, K. Doi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “Light-scattering-mode optical switching and image storage in polymer/liquid crystal composite films by means of photochemical phase transition,” Polymer (Guildf.)41(5), 1757–1763 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (1181 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2631 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1219 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The fabrication procedures of preparing a PNLC with variable tilt angles.(a) Homogeneous alignment, (b) At V = V1, LC/diacrylate monomer are oriented along the electric field and the monomer in the region without photomask is exposed to UV light. (c) At V = V2 (<V1), the cell moves a short distance to the right and the oriented LC is stabilized by the formed polymer network with a smaller tilt angle. (d) Repeat the step of (c) to get a homogeneous polymer-stabilized LC when the voltage is removed or lower than the threshold level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured VT curve of the PNLC cell (before UV curing) between crossed polarizers. λ = 633 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The voltages applied to the cell (blue), the movement of the cell (red), and the curing time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The UV cured cell observed using POM: (a) and (b) show the color of seven stripes at V = 0 (Media 1, Media 2), (c) and (d) show the color of seven stripes at V = 50 Vrms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The voltage applied to the cell (blue), the movement of the cell (red), and the curing time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The observed PNLC color at (a) V = 0, (b) V = 50 Vrms (c) V = 80 Vrms (Media 3), and (d) the measured phase difference across the cured region with a 1.5-mm width (travel distance).

Equations (5)

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Δφ=2πd( n θ n o )/λ,
τ o,LC = γ 1 d 2 /(K π 2 ),
τ o,PNLC = τ o / m 2 .
T= sin 2 πd( n θ n o ) λ ,
n θ = n o +(p 1 2 ) λ red d ,

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