Abstract

We demonstrate high-speed terahertz (THz) reflection three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on electronically controlled optical sampling (ECOPS). ECOPS enables scanning of an axial range of 9 mm in free space at 1 kHz. It takes 80 s to scan a transverse range of 100 mm × 100 mm along a zigzag trajectory that consists of 200 lines using translation stages. To show applicability of the imaging system to nondestructive evaluation, a THz reflection 3D image of an artificially made sample is obtained, which is made of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite material and has defects such as delamination and inclusion, and is compared with an ultrasonic reflection 3D image of the sample.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng.44(1), 019001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. P. Dandekar, C. A. Hall, L. C. Chhabildas, and W. D. Reinhart, “Shock response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composite,” Compos. Struct.61(1-2), 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

C. Winnewisser, F. Lewen, and H. Helm, “Transmission characteristics of dichroic filters measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(6), 593–598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1983

C. N. Liu, M. Fatemi, and R. C. Waag, “Digital processing for improvement of ultrasonic abdominal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging2(2), 66–75 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

L. S. Wilson and D. E. Robinson, “Ultrasonic measurement of small displacements and deformations of tissue,” Ultrason. Imaging4(1), 71–82 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbot, D.

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

Araki, T.

E. Abraham, Y. Ohgi, M. A. Minami, M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Real-time line projection for fast terahertz spectral computed tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 2119–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Blackshire, J.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int.43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, M.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int.43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Chhabildas, L. C.

D. P. Dandekar, C. A. Hall, L. C. Chhabildas, and W. D. Reinhart, “Shock response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composite,” Compos. Struct.61(1-2), 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dandekar, D. P.

D. P. Dandekar, C. A. Hall, L. C. Chhabildas, and W. D. Reinhart, “Shock response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composite,” Compos. Struct.61(1-2), 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Dobroiu, A.

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng.44(1), 019001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dreyhaupt, A.

Ewert, U.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fatemi, M.

C. N. Liu, M. Fatemi, and R. C. Waag, “Digital processing for improvement of ultrasonic abdominal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging2(2), 66–75 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Hall, C. A.

D. P. Dandekar, C. A. Hall, L. C. Chhabildas, and W. D. Reinhart, “Shock response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composite,” Compos. Struct.61(1-2), 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

C. Winnewisser, F. Lewen, and H. Helm, “Transmission characteristics of dichroic filters measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(6), 593–598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Hochrein, T.

Holzwarth, R.

Hunsche, S.

Hwang, J.-S.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

Jewariya, M.

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, M.

Kawase, K.

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng.44(1), 019001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khare, S.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Koch, M.

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

Lewen, F.

C. Winnewisser, F. Lewen, and H. Helm, “Transmission characteristics of dichroic filters measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(6), 593–598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.-I.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. N.

C. N. Liu, M. Fatemi, and R. C. Waag, “Digital processing for improvement of ultrasonic abdominal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging2(2), 66–75 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macpherson, E.

Madaras, E.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maikusa, N.

Mei, M.

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minami, M. A.

Mittleman, D. M.

Moneke, M.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morita, Y.

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng.44(1), 019001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morris, C. M.

Nagai, M.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Ohgi, Y.

Otani, C.

N. Sunaguchi, Y. Sasaki, N. Maikusa, M. Kawai, T. Yuasa, and C. Otani, “Depth-resolving THz imaging with tomosynthesis,” Opt. Express17(12), 9558–9570 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Morita, A. Dobroiu, K. Kawase, and C. Otani, “Terahertz technique for detection of microleaks in the seal of flexible plastic packages,” Opt. Eng.44(1), 019001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reid, C.

Reightler, R.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, W. D.

D. P. Dandekar, C. A. Hall, L. C. Chhabildas, and W. D. Reinhart, “Shock response of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer composite,” Compos. Struct.61(1-2), 51–59 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. E.

L. S. Wilson and D. E. Robinson, “Ultrasonic measurement of small displacements and deformations of tissue,” Ultrason. Imaging4(1), 71–82 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutz, F.

F. Rutz, M. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz quality control of polymeric products,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves27(4), 547–556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Schmidt, C.

Sherwin, M. S.

Stehr, D.

Stoik, C.

C. Stoik, M. Bohn, and J. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” NDT Int.43(2), 106–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sunaguchi, N.

Thoma, A.

Ung, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waag, R. C.

C. N. Liu, M. Fatemi, and R. C. Waag, “Digital processing for improvement of ultrasonic abdominal images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging2(2), 66–75 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

Wang, S.

Wilk, R.

Wilson, L. S.

L. S. Wilson and D. E. Robinson, “Ultrasonic measurement of small displacements and deformations of tissue,” Ultrason. Imaging4(1), 71–82 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

Winnewisser, C.

C. Winnewisser, F. Lewen, and H. Helm, “Transmission characteristics of dichroic filters measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.66(6), 593–598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

E. Abraham, Y. Ohgi, M. A. Minami, M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Real-time line projection for fast terahertz spectral computed tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 2119–2121 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(6), 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yee, D.-S.

Yin, X.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, “T-ray sensing and imaging,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuasa, T.

Zeitler, J. A.

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, “T-ray computed tomography,” Opt. Lett.27(15), 1312–1314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, J. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, and X.-C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J.5(2), 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, J. Xu, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous wave terahertz imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(7), S293–S299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (1799 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1781 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1782 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1780 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for our fast THz reflection 3D imaging system. EM: THz emitter, PS: power supply, PM: off-axis parabolic mirror, BS: silicon beam splitter, DT: THz detector, AMP: current amplifier, NC: nonlinear crystal, PD: photodetector, DPG: digital delay/pulse generator, ADC: analog-to-digital converter, PC: personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of the cross-correlation signal, TTL signal, and THz time-domain data. The blue line shows a cross-correlation signal that has two pulses within a 1 ms period. The digital delay/pulse generator outputs a 1 kHz TTL signal (red line), triggered by only the leading cross-correlation pulses. THz time-domain data (black line) are acquired by the digitizer triggered by the TTL signal. The parts of the THz time-domain data indicated by yellow color are used as A-scan data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 2D and (b) 3D images of a floppy disk (Media 1), acquired using the THz imaging system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic design for the GFRP sample. The blue squares represent Teflon inclusions and the red and green rectangles delaminations. The depths where the defects lie are different, as indicated in the design. The unit of number is millimeter. The black-circled numbers indicate the regions where the A-scan data in Fig. 6 were acquired.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) 3D THz image of the GFRP sample acquired using the imaging system (Media 2). (b) and (c) 3D ultrasonic images of the GFRP sample obtained from ultrasonic reflection tomography. The ultrasonic images in (b) and (c) were obtained using the envelope function (Media 3) and Wiener deconvolution (Media 4) methods to process the A-scan data, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) THz A-scan data (red line) acquired at the regions indicated by black-circled numbers in Fig. 4 and their simulation results (black line). (b) Ultrasonic A-scan data (red line) acquired at the same regions as in (a) and A-scan data obtained using the envelope function (blue line) and Wiener deconvolution (black line) methods. The reflected pulses from the back surface (1), the upper delamination (2), the lower delamination (3), and the inclusion (4) are indicated by arrows in (b). The vertical scale is normalized to the peak amplitude of the reflected pulse from the front surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The solid lines show the amplitude spectra of the reflected THz pulses from the front surface (black line), the upper (red line) and lower (green line) delaminations, and the inclusion (blue line). Also, the calculated FP reflection coefficients of the delamination and inclusion are indicated by the purple and brown dashed lines, respectively.

Equations (1)

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r FP (ω)=| r+ r( 1 r 2 )exp(iδ) 1 r 2 exp(iδ) |= 2 r 2 ( 1cosδ ) 12 r 2 cosδ+ r 4 ( δ= ω c 2nd ),

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