Abstract

The photoluminescence droop effect, i.e., the decrease in emission efficiency with increasing excitation intensity, is observed and studied in GaN epilayers with different carrier lifetimes. Spontaneous and stimulated emissions have been studied in the front-face and edge emission configurations. The onset of stimulated recombination occurs simultaneously with the droop onset in the front-face configuration and might be considered as an origin of the droop effect in GaN epilayers.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of dependence of electroluminescence efficiency of AlInGaN LED heterostructures on pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi C3(6), 2160–2164 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193508 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of dependence of electroluminescence efficiency of AlInGaN LED heterostructures on pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi C3(6), 2160–2164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abram, I.

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bockowski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bourdon, G.

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czernecki, R.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fareed, R. S. Q.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grzanka, S.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucznik, B.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marona, L.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mickevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robert, I.

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rozhansky, I. V.

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of dependence of electroluminescence efficiency of AlInGaN LED heterostructures on pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi C3(6), 2160–2164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.-I.

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.-S.

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suski, T.

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamulaitis, G.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H.-Y.

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zakheim, D. A.

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of dependence of electroluminescence efficiency of AlInGaN LED heterostructures on pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi C3(6), 2160–2164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 231114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ryu, H.-S. Kim, and J.-I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Suppression of carrier recombination in semiconductor lasers by phase-space filling,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, L. Marona, M. Bockowski, B. Lucznik, M. Leszczynski, and T. Suski, “Effect of efficiency “droop” in violet and blue InGaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, R. Gaska, and G. Tamulaitis, “Time-resolved experimental study of carrier lifetime in GaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(24), 241918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Bourdon, I. Robert, I. Sagnes, and I. Abram, “Spontaneous emission in highly excited semiconductors: saturation of the radiative recombination rate,” J. Appl. Phys.92(11), 6595–6600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J.-I. Shim, H. Kim, D.-S. Shin, and H.-Y. Yoo, “An explanation of efficiency droop in InGaN-based light emitting diodes: saturated radiative recombination rate at randomly distributed In-rich active areas,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.58(3), 503–508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of dependence of electroluminescence efficiency of AlInGaN LED heterostructures on pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi C3(6), 2160–2164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Larinovich, Y. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Y. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PL spectra of GaN epitaxial layer sample T434 measured above (solid lines) and below (dashed line) the threshold of stimulated recombination in edge and front-face configurations (indicated). Spectra are vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL efficiency dependence on excitation power density of epitaxial GaN samples measured in front-face configuration. The carrier lifetimes in the samples are indicated. Points corresponding to emergence of stimulated emission are encircled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL efficiency dependence on excitation power density of epitaxial GaN samples measured in edge emission configuration. The carrier lifetimes in the samples are indicated. Stimulated emission threshold points are encircled.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stimulated emission threshold dependence on carrier lifetime in epitaxial GaN samples measured at edge (a) and front face (b) emission configurations.

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