Abstract

The light extraction of 1 × 1 mm2 GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was enhanced by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of silica submicron spheres. The silica spheres were synthesized with various spherical sizes via the ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate in water/ethanol solutions. Hexagonal closely-packed (HCP) silica sphere monolayer was formed onto the indium tin oxide layer of the LED by a spin coating process. The size effect of silica spheres on the light-extraction efficiency (LEE) of GaN-based LEDs was theoretically studied and their optimum size was determined. The simulation results showed that the use of silica spheres can improve the LEE by 1.1-1.32 times compared to the conventional LEDs. The light output power of the LED with 650-nm-thick SAM of HCP silica spheres was experimentally enhanced by 1.28 and 1.23 times under the injection currents of 100 and 350 mA, respectively. By employing the SAM of HCP silica spheres, the directional emission pattern was relatively converged, indicating a reasonable consistency with the simulation result.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, and X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express20(2), 1013–1021 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. J. Tu, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, K. H. Chang, Y. H. Yeh, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells,” Opt. Express19(13), 12719–12726 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 053104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. J. Tu, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, K. H. Chang, Y. H. Yeh, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells,” Opt. Express19(13), 12719–12726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, M. V.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, E.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bulashevich, K. A.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

Chen, C. P.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. H.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, E. S.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cook, L.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dpeck, J. D.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evstratov, I. Yu.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fink, A.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. C.

Gardner, N.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, W.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, P.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Harbers, G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

Huang, J. J.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. C.

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huh, C.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, E. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karpov, S. Yu.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keuper, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khare, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khokhlev, O. V.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

Lee, K. S.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

Lee, Y. T.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. P.

Liu, X.

Ludowise, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ou, S. L.

Pan, K. M.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C. Y.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. C.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. H.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramm, M. S.

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.-C.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Song, R.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F. M.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stöber, W.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Subramanya, S.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

Wang, C. Y.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. M.

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Wuu, D. S.

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, C. C.

S. J. Tu, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, K. H. Chang, Y. H. Yeh, F. W. Huang, and W. C. Lai, “Enhanced output power of GaN-based LEDs with embedded AlGaN pyramidal shells,” Opt. Express19(13), 12719–12726 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

Yin, Z.

Zhao, H.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(9), 093110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Lza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. D. Dpeck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(10), 103502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-nitride LEDs with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide photonic crystal current-spreading layer,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 053104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

Y. W. Cheng, K. M. Pan, C. Y. Wang, H. H. Chen, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “Enhanced light collection of GaN light emitting devices by redirecting the lateral emission using nanorod reflectors,” Nanotechnology20(3), 035202 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Status Solidi A

F. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs - Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

M. V. Bogdanov, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Yu. Evstratov, M. S. Ramm, and S. Yu. Karpov, “Effect of ITO spreading layer on performance of blue light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C7(7–8), 2127–2129 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the GaN-based blue LEDs with SAM of silica spheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FE-SEM images of the as-synthesized silica spheres with different sizes: (a) 450 nm, (b) 540 nm, (c) 650 nm, and (d) 700 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated light-extraction enhancement of GaN-based LEDs as a function of the size of silica spheres, and (b) FDTD simulation results of wave propagation for LEDs with and without SAM of silica spheres.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) L-I-V curves of GaN-based LEDs with and without SAMs of HCP silica spheres, (b) normalized far-field radiation patterns of the corresponding LEDs. The inset of (a) shows the FE-SEM image of SAM of HCP silica spheres integrated on LED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-ray dynamics for the plane ITO layer and for the ITO layer with silica spheres: (a) light-ray traces in the plane ITO layer, and (b)-(c) light-ray traces in the ITO layer with silica spheres.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

0 < θ 0 <π/6: Focused light π/6 < θ 0 < θ c : Guided light in silica sphere θ c < θ 0 : Guided light in LEDs
0 < θ 0 <π/2: Focused light

Metrics