Abstract

Linear and nonlinear gain characterization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (EP-VECSELs) is presented with spectrally resolved measurements of the gain and with gain saturation measurements of two EP-VECSEL samples with different field enhancement in the quantum-well gain layers. The spectral bandwidth, small-signal gain and saturation fluence of the devices are compared. Using the sample with the larger bandwidth, we have demonstrated the shortest pulses generated from a passively modelocked EP-VECSEL to date. With a low-saturation-fluence SESAM for passive modelocking we have achieved 9.5-ps pulses with 7.6 mW average output power at a repetition rate of 1.4 GHz. With a higher output coupler transmission the pulse duration was increased to 31 ps with an average output power of 13.6 mW. The pulses were chirped mainly due to the group delay dispersion (GDD) introduced by the intermediate DBR, which compensates the optical loss in the structure.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
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  4. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
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  5. A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
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  7. M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
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  26. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1963

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baier, J.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cantos, B. D.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carey, G.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carey, G. P.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D. T. D.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dahhan, I.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golling, M.

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ha, W.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heald, D.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hitchens, W. R.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogg, R.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jasim, K.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klopp, P.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

Kreuter, P.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liebman, M.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. C.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Mangold, M.

Marchese, S. V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J. G.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moench, H.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J. S.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A. E. H.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orchard, J. R.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pallmann, W. P.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quarterman, A. H.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schon, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shchegrov, A. V.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, O. D.

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, B. J.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E. M.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sudmeyer, T.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express18(26), 27582–27588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express18(10), 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. L.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. P.

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. M.

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V. J.

Witzigmann, B.

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaugg, C. A.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, M.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kreuter, B. Witzigmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “On the design of electrically-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 257–264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. Liebman, G. P. Carey, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, and D. Heald, “High-power surface emitting semiconductor laser with extended vertical compound cavity,” Electron. Lett.39(6), 523–525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, W. Ha, and E. Ippen, “Passively modelocked vertical extended cavity surface emitting diode laser,” Electron. Lett.39(4), 373–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Jasim, Q. Zhang, A. V. Nurmikko, E. Ippen, A. Mooradian, G. Carey, and W. Ha, “Picosecond pulse generation from passively modelocked vertical cavity diode laser at up to 15 GHz pulse repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.40(1), 34–35 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Barbarin, M. Hoffmann, W. P. Pallmann, I. Dahhan, P. Kreuter, M. Miller, J. Baier, H. Moench, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, B. Witzigmann, and U. Keller, “Electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers suitable for passive modelocking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1779–1786 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Orchard, D. T. D. Childs, L. C. Lin, B. J. Stevens, D. M. Williams, and R. Hogg, “Tradeoffs in the realization of electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1745–1752 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing jitter characterization of a free-running SESAM mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W cw) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. M. Frantz and J. S. Nodvik, “Theory of pulse propagation in a laser amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys.34(8), 2346–2349 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rep.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. G. McInerney, A. Mooradian, A. Lewis, A. V. Shchegrov, E. M. Strzelecka, D. Lee, J. P. Watson, M. K. Liebman, G. P. Carey, A. Umbrasas, C. A. Amsden, B. D. Cantos, W. R. Hitchens, D. L. Heald, V. V. Doan, and J. L. Cannon, “Novel 980-nm and 490-nm light sources using vertical cavity lasers with extended coupled cavities,”in SPIE 2003, (SPIE, 2003), 21–31.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, 2007), pp. 33–167.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an electrically pumped (EP) VECSEL gain chip with the external cavity (not to scale): Bottom disc contact and top ring electrode inject current into the structure. The p-DBR acts as end mirror for the laser wavelength. The gain section consists of several quantum wells (QWs), the partial-reflective intermediate n-DBR increases the field enhancement. The current spreading layer (CSL) supports a homogeneous current injection to the center of the device. The dielectric anti-reflection (AR) coating reduces unwanted sub-cavity effects from the CSL. A curved output coupler (OC) completes the laser cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) IV curves of the two different devices measured at −10 °C (dashed) and 20 °C (solid). (b) Multimode LI curves at −10 °C measured in a simple straight cavity using an OC with a radius of curvature of 15 mm and a transmission depending on the field enhancement (9 pairs: 5.7%, 13 pairs: 10.6%)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured gain spectra for the EP-VECSEL with an intermediate n-DBR with 9 quarter-wave layer pairs (i.e. with 9 n-DBR pairs). (a) Reflectivity spectra of the EP-VECSEL for different injected electric currents at a constant heatsink temperature of −10 °C. A small-signal gain of 13% is reached at 350 mA. The modulations on the spectra arise from the current spreading layer, which acts as a weak sub-cavity because the AR-coating is not perfect. (b) Temperature dependence of the gain for an injected electric current of 300 mA. The gain bandwidth of the device is around 3.1 nm (FWHM).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured gain spectra for EP-VECSEL device with an intermediate n-DBR with 13 quarter-wave layer pairs (i.e. 13 n-DBR pairs). (a) Reflectivity spectra of the EP-VECSEL for different injected electric currents at a constant heatsink temperature of −10 °C. The resolution is limited by the accuracy of the feedback loop controlling the wavelength of the probe laser. A small-signal gain of 58.6% is reached at 300 mA. (b) Temperature dependence of the gain spectra for a constant injected electric current of 300 mA. The bandwidth of the structure is around 0.9 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Gain spectrum of the EP-VECSEL device with an intermediate n-DBR with 9 quarter wave layer pairs for different injected electric currents at −10 °C. The maximum gain is reached at the wavelength λpeak, to where the wavelength of the picosecond probe laser is tuned for the measurement of the gain saturation. (b) Gain saturation measurement (red) at an injected pump current of 300 mA and −10 °C heatsink temperature. From the fit function (blue, dashed) the parameters small-signal gain reflectivity Rsmall-signal, saturation fluence Fsat, the non-saturable reflectivity Rnon-saturable and the strength of the induced absorption F2 can be extracted. The black curve shows the gain saturation for which the induced absorption (IA) effects were numerically removed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain saturation measurement of the two devices at a heatsink temperature of −10 °C and an injected electric current of 300 mA. The measurement data (circles) is modeled to the fit function (solid line). The extracted parameters from the fit function are: Fsat: 3.2 μJ/cm2, gss: 58.3%, F2: 1.02 mJ/cm2, Rns: 69.4% for the 13 n-DBR pairs (13p) EP-VECSEL and Fsat: 6.2 μJ/cm2, gss: 12%, F2: 1.26 mJ/cm2, Rns: 92.25% for the 9 n-DBR pairs (9p) EP-VECSEL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cavity setup for the modelocking experiment: The output coupler (OC) has a radius of curvature (ROC) of 60 mm and a transmission of 4%, the highly reflective mirror (HR) has a ROC of 20 mm. Both the EP-VECSEL gain chip and the QW-SESAM are mounted on a heatsink for temperature stabilization. The resulting beam diameters are ≈100 μm on the EP-VECSEL and ≈40 μm on the SESAM.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Modelocking results obtained from the EP-VECSEL with an intermediate n-DBR with 9 quarter-wave layer pairs and a low-saturation fluence QW-SESAM. (a) Measured optical spectrum with a width of 0.43 nm (FWHM) centered at 975.1 nm. (b) Measured autocorrelation trace (blue) and fit of a 9.5-ps sech2-pulse (red). (c) Measured microwave spectrum centered at the fundamental repetition frequency of 1.4 GHz with a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 100 kHz. (d) Beam quality measurement showing an M2 of 1.1 in both directions and inset showing beam profile recorded with a CCD camera

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the gain parameters of the two characterized devices

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R FlatTop (F)=exp[ g(F) ]= R ns F sat F ln{ 1+exp( R ss R ns )[ exp( F F sat )1 ] }exp( F F 2 ),
R Gauss (F)= 0 1 dz R FlatTop (2Fz),
g ss,eff = g ss +(100 R ns ),

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