Abstract

We demonstrate Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) tomography in the X-ray regime. The method uses an incident X-ray illumination with known curvature in combination with ptychography to overcome existing problems in diffraction imaging. The resulting tomographic reconstruction represents a 3D map of the specimen’s complex refractive index at nano-scale resolution. We use this technique to image a lithographically fabricated glass capillary, in which features down to 70nm are clearly resolved.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A61, 373–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” App. Phys. Lett.85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1982

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Optics21, 2758–2769 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

1970

R. Hegerl and W. Hoppe, “Dynamische theorie der kristallstrukturanalyse durch elektronenbeugung im inhomogenen primarstrahlwellenfeld,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.74, 1148–1154 (1970).

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Artyukhin, A. B.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barraza, J.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benson, C.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (7th Edition) (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Bunk, O.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadenazzi, G.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A61, 373–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, P.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Clark, J. N.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Cui, C.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jonge, M.D.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dhal, B. B.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dilanian, R. A.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falkenberg, G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” App. Phys. Lett.85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. P.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feser, M.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Flewett, S.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fullagar, W.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Hall, C.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Hanssen, E.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau-Riege, S. R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hegerl, R.

R. Hegerl and W. Hoppe, “Dynamische theorie der kristallstrukturanalyse durch elektronenbeugung im inhomogenen primarstrahlwellenfeld,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.74, 1148–1154 (1970).

Henderson, C. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, W.

R. Hegerl and W. Hoppe, “Dynamische theorie der kristallstrukturanalyse durch elektronenbeugung im inhomogenen primarstrahlwellenfeld,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.74, 1148–1154 (1970).

Hornberger, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huwald, E.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilavsky, J.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoto, N.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kak, A. C.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Society for Industrial Mathematics, 1988).

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khounsary, A.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Kinney, J. H.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Legnini, D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, T. M.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, S.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Menzel, A.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J. W.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minor, A. M.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neiman, A. M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noy, A.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A61, 373–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Paterson, D.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paxman, R. G.

Peele, A. G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A61, 373–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Pfeifer, M. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putkunz, C. T.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

Qian, Y.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67, 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys.2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A61, 373–381 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” App. Phys. Lett.85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roehrig, C.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, P.

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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
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B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 025506 (2006).
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C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature467, 436–439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
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C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 013903 (2011).
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C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18, 11746–11753 (2010).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 243902 (2009).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
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B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
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G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
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B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
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G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A73A, 949–957 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot.5, 420–424 (2011).
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B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
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J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express18, 1981 (2010).

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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 055501 (2008).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80, 063823 (2009).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B77, 104112 (2008).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the sample. Figures (b) and (c) show reconstructions of the transmission phase for the same non-ptychographic sample projection with bootstrap and without bootstrap input respectively. (d) A ptychographic reconstruction of the sample (scale bars are common to all reconstructions).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Tomographic slice through the upper region of the tomographic reconstruction surface rendered in (b) and (c). The internal protrusion highlighted within the red circle is a ridge running through the tip interior. (d) an SEM image shows the extrusion in (b) circled in red.

Equations (2)

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T θ ( ρ s ) = exp [ - i k z δ ( ρ s , z ) - i β ( ρ s , z ) d z ]
ϕ = - k z δ ( ρ s , z ) d z ln ( | T | ) = k z β ( ρ s , z ) d z

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