Abstract

We demonstrate Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) tomography in the X-ray regime. The method uses an incident X-ray illumination with known curvature in combination with ptychography to overcome existing problems in diffraction imaging. The resulting tomographic reconstruction represents a 3D map of the specimen’s complex refractive index at nano-scale resolution. We use this technique to image a lithographically fabricated glass capillary, in which features down to 70nm are clearly resolved.

© 2012 OSA

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    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A 61, 373–381 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” App. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1982 (1)

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Optics 21, 2758–2769 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

1970 (1)

R. Hegerl and W. Hoppe, “Dynamische theorie der kristallstrukturanalyse durch elektronenbeugung im inhomogenen primarstrahlwellenfeld,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 74, 1148–1154 (1970).

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Artyukhin, A. B.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barraza, J.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baumann, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benson, C.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

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J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Clark, J. N.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
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J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Cui, C.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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De Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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de Jonge, M. D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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Dilanian, R. A.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
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Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
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Feser, M.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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Flewett, S.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
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J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Hall, C.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Hanssen, E.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
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Hau-Riege, S. P.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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R. Hegerl and W. Hoppe, “Dynamische theorie der kristallstrukturanalyse durch elektronenbeugung im inhomogenen primarstrahlwellenfeld,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 74, 1148–1154 (1970).

Hornberger, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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Howells, M. R.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huwald, E.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilavsky, J.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imamoto, N.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irwin, J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, T.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
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Jacobsen, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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Kak, A. C.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Society for Industrial Mathematics, 1988).

Kewish, C. M.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khounsary, A.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Kinney, J. H.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Legnini, D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, T. M.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchesini, S.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

McNulty, I.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Menzel, A.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A 61, 373–381 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Paterson, D.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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Peele, A. G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A 61, 373–381 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Pfeifer, M. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putkunz, C. T.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

Qian, Y.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Quiney, H. M.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A 61, 373–381 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1638–1640 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodenburg, J. M.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” App. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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Seiboth, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
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G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
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Torrance, A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
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Vogt, S.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
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Weierstall, U.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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Wellenreuther, G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
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Willey, T.

A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
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C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, H. M. Quiney, and H. N. Chapman, “Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery,” Acta Crystallogr. A 61, 373–381 (2005).
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B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” App. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
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A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, F. Seiboth, S. Stephan, G. Wellenreuther, G. Falkenberg, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray scanning microscopy with coherent radiation: Beyond the resolution of conventional x-ray microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 253112 –253112–3 (2012).
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Cytom. Part A (1)

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, B. Abbey, G. A. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution x-ray imaging of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytom. Part A 73A, 949–957 (2008).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. R. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
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Nat. Phot. (1)

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, and I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband x-ray sources,” Nat. Phot. 5, 420–424 (2011).
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Nat. Phys. (2)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
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B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. De Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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Nature (2)

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, T. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18, 1981 (2010).

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 11746–11753 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063823 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, M.D. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel diffractive imaging: Experimental study of coherence and curvature,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 104112 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
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A. Barty, S. Marchesini, H. N. Chapman, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, D. A. Shapiro, A. M. Minor, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, J. Ilavsky, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. B. Artyukhin, T. Baumann, T. Willey, J. Stolken, T. van Buuren, and J. H. Kinney, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of a ceramic nanofoam: Determination of structural deformation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055501 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, J. N. Clark, D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, E. Balaur, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Phase-diverse coherent diffractive imaging: High sensitivity with low dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 243902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343–15346 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 kev microscopy and coherence experiments at the advanced photon source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 kev range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (7th Edition) (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Society for Industrial Mathematics, 1988).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the sample. Figures (b) and (c) show reconstructions of the transmission phase for the same non-ptychographic sample projection with bootstrap and without bootstrap input respectively. (d) A ptychographic reconstruction of the sample (scale bars are common to all reconstructions).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Tomographic slice through the upper region of the tomographic reconstruction surface rendered in (b) and (c). The internal protrusion highlighted within the red circle is a ridge running through the tip interior. (d) an SEM image shows the extrusion in (b) circled in red.

Equations (2)

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T θ ( ρ s ) = exp [ - i k z δ ( ρ s , z ) - i β ( ρ s , z ) d z ]
ϕ = - k z δ ( ρ s , z ) d z ln ( | T | ) = k z β ( ρ s , z ) d z

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