Abstract

Random lasing actions have been observed in optically isotropic pure blue-phase and polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals containing laser dyes. Scattering, interferences and recurrent multiple scatterings arising from disordered platelet texture as well as index mismatch between polymer and mesogen in these materials provide the optical feedbacks for lasing action. In polymer stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals, coherent random lasing could occur in the ordered blue phase with an extended temperature interval as well as in the isotropic liquid state. The dependence of lasing wavelength range, mode characteristics, excitation threshold and other pertinent properties on temperature and detailed make-up of the crystals platelets were obtained. Specifically, lasing wavelengths and mode-stability were found to be determined by platelet size, which can be set by controlling the cooling rate; lasing thresholds and emission spectrum are highly dependent on, and therefore can be tuned by temperature.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).
  4. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
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  9. H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
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  18. B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
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  19. S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(5), 056612 (2002).
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  22. C. R. Lee, J. D. Lin, B. Y. Huang, T. S. Mo, and S. Y. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express18(25), 25896–25905 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. C. Khoo and T. H. Lin, “Nonlinear optical grating diffraction in dye-doped blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3225–3227 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Lin, “Nonlinear optical grating diffraction in dye-doped blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3225–3227 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. R. Lee, J. D. Lin, B. Y. Huang, S. H. Lin, T. S. Mo, S. Y. Huang, C. T. Kuo, and H. C. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the Freedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(5), 056612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolino, R.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(5), 056612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Criante, L.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferjani, S.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A. D.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, D. J.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z. B.

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hands, P. J. W.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, B. Q.

B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B. Y.

Huang, S. Y.

Huang, Y.

B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H. C.

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M. Z.

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. T.

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).

Lau, S. P.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. R.

Liao, Q.

B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. D.

Lin, S. H.

Lin, T. H.

I. C. Khoo and T. H. Lin, “Nonlinear optical grating diffraction in dye-doped blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3225–3227 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetta, D. E.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T. S.

Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mowatt, C.

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pivnenko, M. N.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. N.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qasim, M. M.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seeling, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umeton, C.

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, N. Scaramuzza, G. Strangi, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Distributed feedback micro-laser array: helixed liquid crystals embedded in holographically sculptured polymeric microcavities,” Opt. Express14(7), 2695–2705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(5), 056612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).

Wilkinson, T. D.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H. Q.

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Y. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, H. C.

Yi, G. C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G. C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. W. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(7), 071110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Wavelength flipping in laser emission driven by a switchable holographic grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 837–839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lucchetta, L. Criante, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Light amplification by dye-doped holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(24), 4893–4895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, R. Bartolino, and G. Strangi, “Thermal behavior of random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(12), 121109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, C. Mowatt, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Band-edge and random lasing in paintable liquid crystal emulsions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(14), 141102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A(*) liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Z. Jiao, H. Q. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron

H. Cao, J. Y. Y. Xu, Y. Ling, A. L. Burin, E. W. Seeling, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random Lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser Action in Strongly Scattering Media,” Nature368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

C. T. Wang, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable cholesteric-blue phase liquid crystal using thermal hysteresis,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 248–250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Q. He, Q. Liao, and Y. Huang, “Random lasing in a dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer solution,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 375–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(5), 056612 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. Van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent Backscattering of Light from Amplifying Random-Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(9), 1739–1742 (1995).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for investigating random laser action in dye-doped BPLCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrammatic sketch of random laser action in a dye-doped BPLC sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of (a) pure BPLC and (b) PS-BPLC systems in different phases. And, (c) R-POM images of a PS-BPLC sample in Blue-Phase (BP) and isotropic phase (ISO).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

R-POM images and emission spectra (different colored curves represent different pulses) of the samples that under the conditions of (a) small (< 3 µm), (b) intermediate (10-20 µm) and (c) large (> 30 µm) platelet size of pure BPLC, and (d) PS-BPLC with platelets of intermediate size (6-15 µm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The peak intensity and the linewidth of the emission from a PS-BPLC sample as a function of the excitation energy density, and (b) Temperature dependence of the lasing threshold [excitation pulse energy density] and the peak fluorescence intensity of DCM. (These graphs relate to the mode with the highest intensity.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thermal tuning of PS-BPLC random lasing (blue) versus DCM fluorescence (red) from 32 to 117þC (top to bottom).

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