Abstract

The mechanisms of optical losses in bismuth-doped silica glass (Bi:SiO2) and fibers were studied. It was found that in the fibers of this composition the up-conversion processes occur even at bismuth concentrations lower than 0.02 at.%. Bi:SiO2 core holey fiber drawn under oxidizing conditions was investigated. The absorption spectrum of this fiber has no bands of the bismuth infrared active center. Annealing of this fiber under reducing conditions leads to the formation of the IR absorption bands of the bismuth active center (BAC) and to the simultaneous growth of background losses. Under the realized annealing conditions (argon atmosphere, Tmax = 1100°C, duration 30 min) the BAC concentration reaches its maximum and begins to decrease in the process of excessive Bi reduction, while the background losses only increase. It was shown that the cause of these background losses is the absorption of light by nanoparticles of metallic bismuth formed in bismuth-doped glasses as a result of reduction of a part of the bismuth ions to Bi0 and their following aggregation. The growth of background losses occurs owing to the increase of the concentration and the size of the metallic bismuth nanoparticles.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, and J. Sahu, “Bismuth doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance,” Opt. Express16(25), 21032–21038 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers: a new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE6890, 68900H (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a wavelength range of 1300-1500 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD), paper OMG6 (2010).
  10. E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, paper OW4D.1 (2012).
  11. M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).
  14. L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. I. Bulatov, “Absorption and luminescence properties of bismuth active centers in aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” PhD. Thesis (2009) [in Russian].
  16. R. A. Lidin, L. L. Andreeva, and V. A. Molochko, edited by R. A. Lidin Constants of Inorganic Substances: A Handbook (New York: Begell House, 1995).
  17. C. E. Wicks and F. E. Block, “Thermodynamic properties of 65 elements—their oxides, halides, carbides and nitrides,” US Bureau of Mines Bull. 605, (1963).
  18. A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the bismuth-chloride complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4576–4581 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the mixed ligand complexes of bismuth with chloride and bromide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4581–4585 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B14(3), 969–976 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Glasner and R. Reisfeld, “Absorption spectra of mercury, bismuth, and antimony halides in pressed alkali halide disks,” J. Chem. Phys.32(3), 956–957 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).
  26. P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation on Bi3+ activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. J. Eve and D. N. Hume, “The Formation of the monoiodobismuth (III) ion,” Inorg. Chem.3(2), 276–278 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov “Visible luminescence and upconversion processes in Bi-doped silica-based fibers pumped by IR radiation,” ECOC 08, Brussels, Belgium, paper Tu.3.B.4, 2, 85–86 (2008).
  36. Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 223–228 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  40. O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).
  41. V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).
  42. S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  45. S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  46. Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  47. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1983).
  48. S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  49. E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  50. E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  51. P. Zacharias, “Bestimmung optischer konstanten von wismut im energiebereich von 2 bis 40 eV aus elektronen-energieverlustmessungen,” Opt. Commun.8(2), 142–144 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  52. M. Gutierrez and A. Henglein, “Nanometer-sized Bi particles in aqueous solution: absorption spectrum and some chemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem.100(18), 7656–7661 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  53. K. L. Stokes, J. Fang, and C. J. O’Connor, “Synthesis and properties of bismuth nanocrystals,” 18th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, 374 – 377 (1999).
  54. J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  55. Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  57. W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  58. E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
    [CrossRef]
  59. S. Takaoka and K. Murase, “Studies of far-infrared properties of thin bismuth films on BaF2 substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.54(6), 2250–2256 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  60. N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Effect of electron-plasmon and plasmon-phonon interactions on relaxation in crystals of Bi and Bi1−xSbx alloys,” Phys. Solid State45(9), 1613–1616 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  61. N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Optical effects caused by coincidence between the energies of the plasma oscillations and the band-to-band transition in bismuth crystals doped with an acceptor impurity,” Opt. Spectrosc.92(5), 710–714 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  62. N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Electron-plasmon interaction in acceptor-doped bismuth crystals,” Semiconductors36(9), 971–974 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  63. V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  64. S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  65. E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  66. A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, and G. Bouwmans, “Narrow-line, 1178nm CW bismuth-doped fiber laser with 6.4W output for direct frequency doubling,” Opt. Express15(9), 5473–5476 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers: a new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE6890, 68900H (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kalita, S. Yoo, and J. Sahu, “Bismuth doped fiber laser and study of unsaturable loss and pump induced absorption in laser performance,” Opt. Express16(25), 21032–21038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 223–228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, and G. Bouwmans, “Narrow-line, 1178nm CW bismuth-doped fiber laser with 6.4W output for direct frequency doubling,” Opt. Express15(9), 5473–5476 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

2005

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Effect of electron-plasmon and plasmon-phonon interactions on relaxation in crystals of Bi and Bi1−xSbx alloys,” Phys. Solid State45(9), 1613–1616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Optical effects caused by coincidence between the energies of the plasma oscillations and the band-to-band transition in bismuth crystals doped with an acceptor impurity,” Opt. Spectrosc.92(5), 710–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Electron-plasmon interaction in acceptor-doped bismuth crystals,” Semiconductors36(9), 971–974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Gutierrez and A. Henglein, “Nanometer-sized Bi particles in aqueous solution: absorption spectrum and some chemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem.100(18), 7656–7661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Takaoka and K. Murase, “Studies of far-infrared properties of thin bismuth films on BaF2 substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.54(6), 2250–2256 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Zacharias, “Bestimmung optischer konstanten von wismut im energiebereich von 2 bis 40 eV aus elektronen-energieverlustmessungen,” Opt. Commun.8(2), 142–144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation on Bi3+ activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

A. J. Eve and D. N. Hume, “The Formation of the monoiodobismuth (III) ion,” Inorg. Chem.3(2), 276–278 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1960

A. Glasner and R. Reisfeld, “Absorption spectra of mercury, bismuth, and antimony halides in pressed alkali halide disks,” J. Chem. Phys.32(3), 956–957 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958

W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the bismuth-chloride complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4576–4581 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the mixed ligand complexes of bismuth with chloride and bromide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4581–4585 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1953

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

Afonso, C. N.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akhmetshin, U. G.

A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arai, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barmenkov, Yu. O.

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

Bigot, L.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, and G. Bouwmans, “Narrow-line, 1178nm CW bismuth-doped fiber laser with 6.4W output for direct frequency doubling,” Opt. Express15(9), 5473–5476 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerrum, N. J.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation on Bi3+ activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Boston, C. R.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

Boyle, W. S.

W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Brailsford, A. D.

W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Bril, A.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation on Bi3+ activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bufetova, G. A.

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bulatov, L. I.

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Castillo-Blum, S.-E.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, A. N.

Dianov, E. M.

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers: a new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE6890, 68900H (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, D.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eve, A. J.

A. J. Eve and D. N. Hume, “The Formation of the monoiodobismuth (III) ion,” Inorg. Chem.3(2), 276–278 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Favre, A.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferin, A. A.

Fernandez Navarro, J. M.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

Firstov, S. V.

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Firstova, E. G.

Galt, J. K.

W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaume-Mahn, F.

C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, E.

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

Glasner, A.

A. Glasner and R. Reisfeld, “Absorption spectra of mercury, bismuth, and antimony halides in pressed alkali halide disks,” J. Chem. Phys.32(3), 956–957 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, J.

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

Grabov, V. M.

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Effect of electron-plasmon and plasmon-phonon interactions on relaxation in crystals of Bi and Bi1−xSbx alloys,” Phys. Solid State45(9), 1613–1616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Electron-plasmon interaction in acceptor-doped bismuth crystals,” Semiconductors36(9), 971–974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Optical effects caused by coincidence between the energies of the plasma oscillations and the band-to-band transition in bismuth crystals doped with an acceptor impurity,” Opt. Spectrosc.92(5), 710–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gur’yanov, A. N.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guryanov, A. N.

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gur'yanov, A. N.

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, M.

M. Gutierrez and A. Henglein, “Nanometer-sized Bi particles in aqueous solution: absorption spectrum and some chemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem.100(18), 7656–7661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haro-Poniatowski, E.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D. O.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henglein, A.

M. Gutierrez and A. Henglein, “Nanometer-sized Bi particles in aqueous solution: absorption spectrum and some chemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem.100(18), 7656–7661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hershenson, H. M.

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

Hong, B. H.

Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, D. N.

A. J. Eve and D. N. Hume, “The Formation of the monoiodobismuth (III) ion,” Inorg. Chem.3(2), 276–278 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the mixed ligand complexes of bismuth with chloride and bromide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4581–4585 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the bismuth-chloride complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4576–4581 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Iskhakova, L. D.

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

James, D. W.

G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, N.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez de Castro, M.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiyu, Z.

P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jouanne, M.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalita, M. P.

Kanehisa, M.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kartuzhanskii, A. L.

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khonthon, S.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kir'yanov, A. V.

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

Kir'yanov, A. V.

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayana, G.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lerouge, A.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

Levchenko, A. E.

Luthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magruder, R. H.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malinin, A. A.

A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuishi, K.

S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mayorova, M. S.

Medvedkov, O. I.

A. S. Zlenko, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. N. Denisov, L. D. Iskhakova, M. S. Mayorova, O. I. Medvedkov, S. L. Semenov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. M. Dianov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition bismuth-doped silica-core holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2599–2601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melkumov, M. A.

Mel'kumov, M. A.

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, C.

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

Miura, M.

S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, S. H.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morhange, J. F.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murase, K.

S. Takaoka and K. Murase, “Studies of far-infrared properties of thin bismuth films on BaF2 substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.54(6), 2250–2256 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Newman, L.

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the bismuth-chloride complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4576–4581 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the mixed ligand complexes of bismuth with chloride and bromide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4581–4585 (1957).
[CrossRef]

O'Connor, C. J.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onari, S.

S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, C.

C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plachenov, B. T.

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Pureur, V.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, S.

P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 223–228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishna, S.

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rautenberg, M.

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

Razdobreev, I.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, and G. Bouwmans, “Narrow-line, 1178nm CW bismuth-doped fiber laser with 6.4W output for direct frequency doubling,” Opt. Express15(9), 5473–5476 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisfeld, R.

A. Glasner and R. Reisfeld, “Absorption spectra of mercury, bismuth, and antimony halides in pressed alkali halide disks,” J. Chem. Phys.32(3), 956–957 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rendon, L.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ricolleau, C.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, L. B.

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

Ruiz-Ruiz, V.-F.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rulkov, A. B.

Sahu, J.

Santiago-Jacinto, P.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, O.

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

Semenov, S. L.

Semjonov, S. L.

A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Senske, W.

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Setty, R.

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 223–228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, A. V.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, A. V. Shubin, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser diode pumped bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for 1430 nm band,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2408–2410 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Shubin, M. A. Melkumov, O. I. Medvedkov, and I. A. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A. M.

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sokolova, I. V.

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, N. P.

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Effect of electron-plasmon and plasmon-phonon interactions on relaxation in crystals of Bi and Bi1−xSbx alloys,” Phys. Solid State45(9), 1613–1616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Electron-plasmon interaction in acceptor-doped bismuth crystals,” Semiconductors36(9), 971–974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Optical effects caused by coincidence between the energies of the plasma oscillations and the band-to-band transition in bismuth crystals doped with an acceptor impurity,” Opt. Spectrosc.92(5), 710–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, K. L.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Studzinskii, O. P.

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suhorukov, A. P.

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takaoka, S.

S. Takaoka and K. Murase, “Studies of far-infrared properties of thin bismuth films on BaF2 substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.54(6), 2250–2256 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Truong, V. G.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

Umnikov, A. A.

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, O. I. Medvedkov, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical amplification in 1430-1495 nm range and laser action in Bi-doped fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16971–16976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, S. A.

Vechkanov, N. N.

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vel’miskin, V. V.

Velasco-Arias, D.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vel'miskin, V. V.

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. W.

Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeks, R. A.

S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiemann, J. A.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Zacharias, P.

P. Zacharias, “Bestimmung optischer konstanten von wismut im energiebereich von 2 bis 40 eV aus elektronen-energieverlustmessungen,” Opt. Commun.8(2), 142–144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhiwu, P.

P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. L.

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zlenko, A. S.

Zollfrank, C.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zuhr, R.

S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zuhr, R. A.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zumeta-Dube, I.

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. V. Kir'yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, Yu. O. Barmenkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Nonsaturable absorption in alumino-silicate bismuth-doped fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.109, 023113 (2011).

Adv. Funct. Mater.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

C. Merritt JrH. M. Hershenson and L. B. Rogers, “Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth, lead, and thallium with hydrochloric acid,” Anal. Chem.25(4), 572–577 (1953).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 041908 (2008).

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. Onari, M. Miura, and K. Matsuishi, “Raman spectroscopic studies on bismuth nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation technique,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197–198, 615–618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics

L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, E. M. Dianov, A. P. Suhorukov, A. A. Umnikov, and A. N. Guryanov, “Absorption and scattering in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci., Physics72(1), 98–102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. V. Dvoyrin, A. V. Kir'yanov, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Absorption, gain, and laser action in bismuth-doped aluminosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(2), 182–190 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem.

A. J. Eve and D. N. Hume, “The Formation of the monoiodobismuth (III) ion,” Inorg. Chem.3(2), 276–278 (1964).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and [Bi5]3+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem.6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the bismuth-chloride complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4576–4581 (1957).
[CrossRef]

L. Newman and D. N. Hume, “A spectrophotometric study of the mixed ligand complexes of bismuth with chloride and bromide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.79(17), 4581–4585 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, and R. Zuhr, “Optical absorption by colloidal precipitates in bismuth-implanted fused silica: annealing behavior,” J. Appl. Phys.77(12), 6100–6107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc.

A. L. Kartuzhanskii, B. T. Plachenov, I. V. Sokolova, and O. P. Studzinskii, “Spectroscopic study of the photolysis of bismuth (III) chlorides,” J. Appl. Spectrosc.48(3), 308–311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigation on Bi3+ activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, D. W. James, and C. R. Boston, “Optical spectra of Tl+, Pb2+, and Bi3+ in the molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic,” J. Chem. Phys.42(6), 2249–2250 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. Glasner and R. Reisfeld, “Absorption spectra of mercury, bismuth, and antimony halides in pressed alkali halide disks,” J. Chem. Phys.32(3), 956–957 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol.

O. Sanz, E. Haro-Poniatowski, J. Gonzalo, and J. M. Fernandez Navarro, “Influence of the melting conditions of heavy metal oxide glasses containing bismuth oxide on their optical absorption,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.352, 761–768 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

M. Gutierrez and A. Henglein, “Nanometer-sized Bi particles in aqueous solution: absorption spectrum and some chemical properties,” J. Phys. Chem.100(18), 7656–7661 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. W. Wang, B. H. Hong, and K. S. Kim, “Size control of semimetal bismuth nanoparticles and the UV-visible and IR absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7067–7072 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

D. Velasco-Arias, I. Zumeta-Dube, D. Diaz, P. Santiago-Jacinto, V.-F. Ruiz-Ruiz, S.-E. Castillo-Blum, and L. Rendon, “Stabilization of strong quantum confined colloidal bismuth nanoparticles, one-pot synthesized at room conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(27), 14717–14727 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

S. Takaoka and K. Murase, “Studies of far-infrared properties of thin bismuth films on BaF2 substrate,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.54(6), 2250–2256 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

S. V. Firstov, I. A. Bufetov, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Shubin, A. M. Smirnov, L. D. Iskhakova, N. N. Vechkanov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “2 W bismuth doped fiber lasers in the wavelength range 1300–1500 nm and variation of Bi-doped fiber parameters with core composition,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(9), 665–670 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Engineer. B

J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, J. A. Wiemann, W. L. Zhou, J. Dai, F. Chen, and C. J. O'Connor, “Microemulsion-processed bismuth nanoparticles,” Mater. Sci. Engineer. B83(1-3), 254–257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jimenez de Castro, J. M. Fernandez Navarro, J. F. Morhange, and C. Ricolleau, “Melting and solidification of Bi nanoparticles in a germanate glass,” Nanotechnology18(31), 315703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Zacharias, “Bestimmung optischer konstanten von wismut im energiebereich von 2 bis 40 eV aus elektronen-energieverlustmessungen,” Opt. Commun.8(2), 142–144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, D. O. Henderson, S. Y. Park, R. A. Weeks, R. H. Magruder, and R. A. Zuhr, “Linear and nonlinear optical response of bismuth and antimony implanted fused silica: annealing effects,” Opt. Mater.4(6), 675–684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu and Y. Shen, “Investigation on the spectral characteristics of bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 223–228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Optical effects caused by coincidence between the energies of the plasma oscillations and the band-to-band transition in bismuth crystals doped with an acceptor impurity,” Opt. Spectrosc.92(5), 710–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

W. S. Boyle, A. D. Brailsford, and J. K. Galt, “Dielectric anomalies and cyclotron absorption in the infrared: observations on bismuth,” Phys. Rev.109(4), 1396–1398 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Haro-Poniatowski, M. Jouanne, J. F. Morhange, M. Kanehisa, R. Serna, and C. N. Afonso, “Size effects investigated by Raman spectroscopy in Bi nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B60(14), 10080–10085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Effect of electron-plasmon and plasmon-phonon interactions on relaxation in crystals of Bi and Bi1−xSbx alloys,” Phys. Solid State45(9), 1613–1616 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

E. Gerlach, P. Grosse, M. Rautenberg, and W. Senske, “Dynamical conductivity and plasmon excitation in Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi75(2), 553–558 (1976) (b).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.

C. Pedrini, G. Boulon, and F. Gaume-Mahn, “Bi3+ and Pb2+ centres in alkaline-earth antimonate phosphors,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.15(1), K15–K18 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Y. Qiu, J. Wang, and Y. Jin, “Up-converion in bismuth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7658, 76581T, 76581T-5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malinin, A. S. Zlenko, U. G. Akhmetshin, and S. L. Semjonov, “Furnace chemical vapor deposition (FCVD) method for special optical fibers fabrication,” Proc. SPIE7934, 793418, 793418-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers: a new active medium for NIR lasers and amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE6890, 68900H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, M. A. Mel'kumov, I. A. Bufetov, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Gur'yanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibre laser with 20-W output power at 1460 nm,” Quantum Electron.41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and I. A. Bufetov, “Bi-doped fibre lasers and amplifiers emitting in a spectral region of 1.3 μm,” Quantum Electron.38(7), 615–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel'miskin, S. V. Firstov, G. A. Bufetova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of active bismuth centres in silica fibres containing no other dopants,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 639–641 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors

N. P. Stepanov and V. M. Grabov, “Electron-plasmon interaction in acceptor-doped bismuth crystals,” Semiconductors36(9), 971–974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

P. Zhiwu, S. Qiang, and Z. Jiyu, “Luminescence of Bi3+ and the energy transfer from Bi3+ to R3+ (R= Eu, Dy, Sm, Tb) in alkaline-earth borates,” Solid State Commun.86(6), 377–380 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a wavelength range of 1300-1500 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD), paper OMG6 (2010).

E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest, paper OW4D.1 (2012).

I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov “Visible luminescence and upconversion processes in Bi-doped silica-based fibers pumped by IR radiation,” ECOC 08, Brussels, Belgium, paper Tu.3.B.4, 2, 85–86 (2008).

L. I. Bulatov, “Absorption and luminescence properties of bismuth active centers in aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” PhD. Thesis (2009) [in Russian].

R. A. Lidin, L. L. Andreeva, and V. A. Molochko, edited by R. A. Lidin Constants of Inorganic Substances: A Handbook (New York: Begell House, 1995).

C. E. Wicks and F. E. Block, “Thermodynamic properties of 65 elements—their oxides, halides, carbides and nitrides,” US Bureau of Mines Bull. 605, (1963).

K. L. Stokes, J. Fang, and C. J. O’Connor, “Synthesis and properties of bismuth nanocrystals,” 18th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, 374 – 377 (1999).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM photographs of holey fibers (А – SBiO fiber, В – SBiAr fiber).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of: 1 – fiber SBiO, 2 – fiber SBiAr [19], 3 – fiber SBiF, 4 – slice of preform ZSBi measured around the maximum of bismuth concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Up-conversion luminescence in the SBiFR fiber (Bi:SiO2) upon 975 nm (1) and 1064 nm (2) excitation. For the 1064-nm excitation, the spectra for different input pump powers (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 4.9 W) are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dependence of the luminescence intensity in the major peaks 650 (a), 664 (b), 786 (c) nm on the pump power at 1064 nm. The numbers near the curves denote the slope of the corresponding curves at low and high pump powers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement scheme of the induced absorption during annealing process. 1 – optical spectrum analyzer ANDO AQ6315A, 2 – resistance furnace with length of 0.5 m, 3 – halogen lamp.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Annealing of the SBiO-fiber with argon in the fiber holes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption changes during the SBiO-fiber annealing with argon in the holes. 1 - the band intensity at 820 nm minus the background level, 2 - band intensity at 1400 nm minus the background level, 3-7 - background losses at wavelengths of 610, 721,1089, 1250 and 1650 nm, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The absorption spectra from Fig. 6 (curves 6-11) approximated by a hyperbola (dashed lines). During the approximation process, the absorption bands ranges of 700-900 and 1200-1500 nm were excluded. Additionally, the approximation for curves 6-8 was made in the range of 1000-1750 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A – the SEM photograph of Black-preform core (Z-contrast mode). Numbers indicate the germanium and bismuth concentration in at.% at the marked locations. B - photograph of the Black-preform core made by an optical microscope (core diameter is about 1.5 mm, plate thickness is 1 mm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

X-ray diffraction pattern of Black-preform core.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Raman spectrum of the Black preform core.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

1 – the absorption spectrum of Black-preform measured near the maximum of the Bi concentration. 2 – the absorption spectrum of metallic bismuth nanoparticles in the silica glass calculated from Eq. (1) and fitted by curve 1 (ε1 and ε2 were taken from [51], n0 was calculated from the Sellmeier equation for silica glass).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The parameters of the most effective (with efficiency exceeding 10%) Bi-doped silica-based fiber lasers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters and description of fabricated silica-based preforms and fibers

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α NV n 0 3 λ ε 2 ( ε 1 +2 n 0 2 ) 2 + ε 2 2
ω p 2 = N f e 2 m ε 0

Metrics