Abstract

We report the first room-temperature continuous-wave operation of III-V quantum-dot laser diodes monolithically grown on a Si substrate. Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot structures were fabricated on Ge-on-Si substrates. Room-temperature lasing at a wavelength of 1.28 μm has been achieved with threshold current densities of 163 A/cm2 and 64.3 A/cm2 under continuous-wave and pulsed conditions for ridge-waveguide lasers with as cleaved facets, respectively. The value of 64.3 A/cm2 represents the lowest room-temperature threshold current density for any kind of laser on Si to date.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Si,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012.)
  28. J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Si,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices: Handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2315–2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akatsu, T.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allibert, F.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Augendre, E.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T.

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beanland, R.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bordel, D.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boussagol, A.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Brammertz, G.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Campidelli, Y.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caymax, M.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Childs, D.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, L.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clavelier, L.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Currie, M.

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

David, J.

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degroote, S.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deguet, C.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D.

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dohrman, C.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fathpour, S.

Fischer, R.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E.

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freisem, S.

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frith, R.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Groenert, M.

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Groom, K.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Groom, K. M.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guimard, D.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, M.

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, C.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, T.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heyns, M.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hogg, R.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jiang, Q.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C.

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kernevez, N.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Klein, M.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ko, W.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Langdo, T.

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitz, C.

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Letertre, F.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lew, K. L.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leys, M.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Si,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loke, W. K.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loup, V.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masselink, W.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mazen, F.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, J. H.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mazure, C.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGlinn, T.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meuris, M.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Mols, Y.

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mowbray, D.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mowbray, D. J.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, M.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, G.

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Patel, N.

Pitera, A.

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pozzi, F.

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raday, O.

Rajesh, M.

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R.

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richtarch, C.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D.

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouchon, D.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royce, R.

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samavedam, S.

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, L.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sedgwick, F.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, I.

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, I. R.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shavritranuruk, K.

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Signamarcheix, T.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M.

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steer, M.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices: Handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L. J.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanoto, H.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T. D.

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tutu, F.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Usami, M.

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices: Handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, J.

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Won, R.

R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. F.

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Currie, S. Samavedam, T. Langdo, C. Leitz, and E. Fitzgerald, “Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded SiGe layers and chemical-mechanical polishing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(14), 1718–1720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, I. Sellers, T. Badcock, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, K. Groom, M. Gutierrez, M. Hopkinson, J. Ng, J. David, and R. Beanland, “Improved performance of 1.3 μm multilayer InAs quantum-dot lasers usinga high-growth-temperature GaAs spacer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(5), 704–706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanoto, S. F. Yoon, K. L. Lew, W. K. Loke, C. Dohrman, E. A. Fitzgerald, and L. J. Tang, “Electroluminescence and structural characteristics of InAs/In0.1Ga0.9As quantum dots grown on graded Si1−xGex/Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141905 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bordel, D. Guimard, M. Rajesh, M. Nishioka, E. Augendre, L. Clavelier, and Y. Arakawa, “Growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots on germanium-on-insulator-on-silicon (GeOI) substrate with high optical quality at room temperature in the 1.3 μm band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Badcock, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, M. Skolnick, H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, K. Groom, and Q. Jiang, “Low threshold current density and negative characteristic temperature 1.3 μm InAs self-assembled quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

I. Sellers, H. Liu, K. Groom, D. Childs, D. Robbins, T. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. Mowbray, and M. Skolnick, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density,” Electron. Lett. 40(22), 1412–1413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Deppe, K. Shavritranuruk, G. Ozgur, H. Chen, and S. Freisem, “Quantum dot laser diode with low threshold and low internal loss,” Electron. Lett. 45(1), 54–55 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Jin, T. Badcock, H. Liu, K. Groom, R. Royce, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Observation and modelling of a room-temperature negative characteristic temperature 1.3-μm p-type modulation-doped quantum-dot laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(12), 1259–1265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “High-performance In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum-dot lasers on silicon with multiple-layer quantum-dot dislocation filters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 54(11), 2849–2855 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Liu, M. Hopkinson, C. Harrison, M. Steer, R. Frith, I. R. Sellers, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, “Optimizing the growth of 1.3 μm InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2931–2936 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Beanland, A. Sanchez, D. Childs, K. M. Groom, H. Liu, D. Mowbray, and M. Hopkinson, “Structural analysis of life tested 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014913 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Fischer, W. Masselink, J. Klem, T. Henderson, T. McGlinn, M. Klein, H. Morkoc, J. H. Mazur, and J. Washburn, “Growth and properties of GaAs/AlGaAs on nonpolar substrates using molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(1), 374–381 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. Groenert, A. Pitera, R. Ram, and E. Fitzgerald, “Improved room-temperature continuous wave GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs laser fabricated on Si substrates via relaxed graded GexSi1-x buffer layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(3), 1064–1069 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, and C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – A novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4–5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Sugawara and M. Usami, “Quantum dot devices: Handling the heat,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 30–31 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Won, “Integrating silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 498–499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on Si,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetector,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, T. D. Tran, K. Ng, W. Ko, L. Chuang, F. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Thin Solid Films

G. Brammertz, M. Caymax, M. Meuris, M. Heyns, Y. Mols, S. Degroote, and M. Leys, “GaAs on Ge for CMOS,” Thin Solid Films 517(1), 148–151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012.)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic shows the layer structure of an InAs/GaAs QD laser diode on a Ge-on-Si substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) AFM image (1 × 1 μm2) of InAs/GaAs QDs grown on a Ge/Si substrate. (B) Cross-sectional TEM image of laser active region, where InAs QDs are separated by 8-nm InGaAs and 45-nm GaAs spacer layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Light output power versus current for 3.5-mm-long QD laser diodes grown on a Ge/Si substrate under pulsed mode. The inset shows the emission spectra of InAs/GaAs QD laser for different drive currents below and above threshold. (B) Light output power against current and voltage against current for 3.5-mm-long QD laser diodes grown on a Ge/Si substrate under cw conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Light output against current for 3.0-mm-long QD laser diode at various heatsink temperatures under pulsed mode. (B) Light output against current for 3.0-mm-long QD laser diode at various heatsink temperatures under cw conditions.

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