Abstract

We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar sphere, which we term a generalized polarization state, that is preserved. Changes to the generalized polarization state can then be used in place of the absolute polarization states that make up the generalized state, to measure the change in polarization due to a sample under investigation. We illustrate the usefulness of this analysis approach by demonstrating fiber-based ellipsometry, where the polarization state of the probe light is unknown, and, yet, the ellipsometric angles of the investigated sample (Ψ and Δ) are obtained with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional ellipsometry instruments by measuring changes to the generalized polarization state.

© 2012 OSA

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Corrections

Feng Liu, Chris J. Lee, Juequan Chen, Eric Louis, Peter J. M. van der Slot, Klaus J. Boller, and Fred Bijkerk, "Correction to article “Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states”," Opt. Express 20, 29308-29308 (2012)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-28-29308

References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (3)

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Desroches, D. Pagnoux, F. Louradour, and A. Barthelemy, “Fiber optic device for endoscopic polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(31), 3409–3411 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

E. Kim, D. Dave, and T. E. Milner, “Fiber-optic spectral polarimeter using a broadband swept laser source,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Von Keudell, “Formation of polymer-like hydrocarbon films from radical beams of methyl and atomic hydrogen,” Thin Solid Films 402(1–2), 1–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Rikken and E. Raupach, “Observation of magneto-chiral dichroism,” Nature 390(6659), 493–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. Striebel, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Characterization of biomembranes by spectral ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance and interferometry with regard to biosensor application,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 9, 139–146 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Xue, C. Jung, and M. Kim, “Phase-transitions Of liquid-crystal films on an air-water-interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(3), 474–477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. Prime and G. Whitesides, “Self-assembled organic monolayers - model systems for studying adsorption of proteins At surfaces,” Science 252(5009), 1164–1167 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1975 (1)

P. Hauge and F. Dill, “A rotating-compensator fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Au, H.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Barthelemy, A.

Benckiser, E.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benson, J.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, C.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bijkerk, F.

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonn, D.

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boris, A. V.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Braun, J.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, A.

C. Striebel, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Characterization of biomembranes by spectral ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance and interferometry with regard to biosensor application,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 9, 139–146 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broseta, D.

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, E. C.

Castro-Colin, M.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Centanni, J. C.

Charlet, G.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cho, M.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, C.

Chow, P.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornfeld, A.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, G.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Dave, D.

E. Kim, D. Dave, and T. E. Milner, “Fiber-optic spectral polarimeter using a broadband swept laser source,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Desroches, J.

Detemple, E.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dill, F.

P. Hauge and F. Dill, “A rotating-compensator fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dinan, J.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doctor, D.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, X.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Dressel, M.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, I.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frano, A.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Gaskell, P. E.

Gauglitz, G.

C. Striebel, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Characterization of biomembranes by spectral ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance and interferometry with regard to biosensor application,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 9, 139–146 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Golnik, A.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gompf, B.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Ha, J.-H.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habermeier, H.-U.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauge, P.

P. Hauge and F. Dill, “A rotating-compensator fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Higuma, K.

Hinkov, V.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.-L.

Huebner, U.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indekeu, J.

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.-J.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

Johnson, S.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johs, B.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

June, Y.-G.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, C.

J. Xue, C. Jung, and M. Kim, “Phase-transitions Of liquid-crystal films on an air-water-interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(3), 474–477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

Kawanishi, T.

Keimer, B.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khijwania, S.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Kim, E.

E. Kim, D. Dave, and T. E. Milner, “Fiber-optic spectral polarimeter using a broadband swept laser source,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

J. Xue, C. Jung, and M. Kim, “Phase-transitions Of liquid-crystal films on an air-water-interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(3), 474–477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Z. H.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunze, R.

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, K.

Lee, C.

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

Lee, J.-S.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-K.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Lin, C.-E.

Liu, Y.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Louis, E.

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louradour, F.

Lu, C.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Lubomska, M.

Malik, V. K.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marciante, J.

Matiks, Y.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J.

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

E. Kim, D. Dave, and T. E. Milner, “Fiber-optic spectral polarimeter using a broadband swept laser source,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moors, R.

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morenzoni, E.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

Olson, G.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Pagnoux, D.

Pelczynski, M.

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Z.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Popovich, P.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prime, K.

K. Prime and G. Whitesides, “Self-assembled organic monolayers - model systems for studying adsorption of proteins At surfaces,” Science 252(5009), 1164–1167 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokscha, T.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ragil, K.

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raupach, E.

G. Rikken and E. Raupach, “Observation of magneto-chiral dichroism,” Nature 390(6659), 493–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, H.

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G.

G. Rikken and E. Raupach, “Observation of magneto-chiral dichroism,” Nature 390(6659), 493–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Salman, Z.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, D.

J. Chen, E. Louis, C. J. Lee, H. Wormeester, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, R. Moors, W. van Schaik, M. Lubomska, and F. Bijkerk, “Detection and characterization of carbon contamination on EUV multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16969–16979 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Si, W.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirenko, A.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skulason, H. S.

Striebel, C.

C. Striebel, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Characterization of biomembranes by spectral ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance and interferometry with regard to biosensor application,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 9, 139–146 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupinski, W.

Sun, L.

Suter, A.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szkopek, T.

Tam, H.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tran, P.

Tsai, C.-C.

Tsarfati, T.

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Schaik, W.

Von Keudell, A.

A. Von Keudell, “Formation of polymer-like hydrocarbon films from radical beams of methyl and atomic hydrogen,” Thin Solid Films 402(1–2), 1–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wai, P.

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Wei, H.-C.

Weiss, T.

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G.

K. Prime and G. Whitesides, “Self-assembled organic monolayers - model systems for studying adsorption of proteins At surfaces,” Science 252(5009), 1164–1167 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winzer, P. J.

Wochner, P.

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

Xi, X.

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

J. Xue, C. Jung, and M. Kim, “Phase-transitions Of liquid-crystal films on an air-water-interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(3), 474–477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakshin, A.

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

Yu, C.-J.

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

C. Striebel, A. Brecht, and G. Gauglitz, “Characterization of biomembranes by spectral ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance and interferometry with regard to biosensor application,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 9, 139–146 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

J. Chen, C. Lee, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, R. Kunze, H. Schmidt, D. Schneider, and R. Moors, “Characterization of EUV induced carbon films using laser-generated surface acoustic waves,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 18(5–8), 768–771 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (3)

G. Rikken and E. Raupach, “Observation of magneto-chiral dichroism,” Nature 390(6659), 493–494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Rhee, Y.-G. June, J.-S. Lee, K.-K. Lee, J.-H. Ha, Z. H. Kim, S.-J. Jeon, and M. Cho, “Femtosecond characterization of vibrational optical activity of chiral molecules,” Nature 458(7236), 310–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sirenko, C. Bernhard, A. Golnik, A. Clark, J. Hao, W. Si, and X. Xi, “Soft-mode hardening in SrTiO3 thin films,” Nature 404(6776), 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. Kim, D. Dave, and T. E. Milner, “Fiber-optic spectral polarimeter using a broadband swept laser source,” Opt. Commun. 249(1–3), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Hauge and F. Dill, “A rotating-compensator fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14(4), 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

B. Gompf, J. Braun, T. Weiss, H. Giessen, M. Dressel, and U. Huebner, “Periodic nanostructures: Spatial dispersion mimics chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 185501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ragil, J. Meunier, D. Broseta, J. Indekeu, and D. Bonn, “Experimental observation of critical wetting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(8), 1532–1535 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xue, C. Jung, and M. Kim, “Phase-transitions Of liquid-crystal films on an air-water-interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(3), 474–477 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Surface Sci (1)

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surface Sci. , 1–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. V. Boris, Y. Matiks, E. Benckiser, A. Frano, P. Popovich, V. Hinkov, P. Wochner, M. Castro-Colin, E. Detemple, V. K. Malik, C. Bernhard, T. Prokscha, A. Suter, Z. Salman, E. Morenzoni, G. Cristiani, H.-U. Habermeier, and B. Keimer, “Dimensionality Control of Electronic Phase Transitions in Nickel-Oxide Superlattices,” Science 332(6032), 940–943 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Prime and G. Whitesides, “Self-assembled organic monolayers - model systems for studying adsorption of proteins At surfaces,” Science 252(5009), 1164–1167 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

A. Von Keudell, “Formation of polymer-like hydrocarbon films from radical beams of methyl and atomic hydrogen,” Thin Solid Films 402(1–2), 1–37 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, J. Benson, D. Doctor, G. Olson, I. Ferguson, M. Pelczynski, P. Chow, C. Kuo, and S. Johnson, “Real-time monitoring and control of epitaxial semiconductor growth in a production environment by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 490–495 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Fu, S. Khijwania, H. Au, X. Dong, H. Tam, P. Wai, and C. Lu, “Novel fiber optic polarimetric torsion sensor based on polarization- maintaining photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2008).

Z. Dai, X. Zhang, Z. Peng, J. Li, Z. Ou, and Y. Liu, “Distributed fiber optic stress sensor system based on P-OFDR,” in Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2010).

E. A. Irene and H. G. Tompkins, eds., Handbook of Ellipsometry (William Andrews Publications, Norich, NY, 2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ellipsometer setup. The polarization control optics (PC) set the light’s input polarization, as illustrated on the Poincar sphere (a). After passing through a non-polarizing beam splitter (BS), part of the light is sent to a rotating compensator for analysis (PM 1) of the input polarization and part is coupled into the PM fiber. The polarization state of the light exiting the fiber falls somewhere on the orbit illustrated on Poincar sphere (b). The light reflects off the sample, rotating the orbit to that shown in Poincar sphere (c) and the final polarization state is measured at PM 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization state of the light exiting the fiber for a fixed input polarization and varying the fiber temperature between 19.4 and 21.8°C. Subfigure (a) shows a three dimensional image of the polarization state on the Poincar sphere, while (b) is the projection of that orbit onto the 3rd and 4th Stokes vector components. The solid line is a least squares fit to the data with an ellipse function. The ratio of the major and minor axis, and the orientation of the major axis in the Stokes plane are used as fitting parameters (see below).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Subfigure (a): projection of the polarization orbits on the plane of the third and fourth Stokes vector components for the light exiting the fiber (solid green circles), after reflection from: a multilayer mirror (filled black diamonds), a multilayer mirror with a 0.3 nm thick carbon layer (open red circles), and a multilayer mirror with a 0.8 nm thick carbon layer (open blue diamonds). Subfigure (b) shows a zoomed section of the projection of the polarization orbits. The lines are the fitted ellipses, which are used to determine Ψ and Δ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical evaluation of Eq. (9) for a total polarization mode cross talk of 20 dB. Time-dependent temperature changes cause changes to the local degree and orientation of the fiber’s birefringence. The resulting output is an orbit on the Poincar sphere.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ψ and Δ values for fiber-based ellipsometric measurements (columns 2 and 3) and conventional ellipsometer measurements (columns 4 and 5) on carbon-coated MLMs

Equations (10)

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M = A [ 1 cos 2 Ψ 0 0 cos 2 Ψ 1 0 0 0 0 sin 2 Ψ cos Δ sin 2 Ψ sin Δ 0 0 sin 2 Ψ sin Δ sin 2 Ψ cos Δ ]
s p = M s p
s p = [ I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 ] , s p = [ R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 ]
R 1 = A ( I 1 I 2 cos 2 Ψ )
R 2 = A ( I 2 I 1 cos 2 Ψ )
R 3 = A sin ( 2 Ψ ) ( I 3 cos Δ I 4 sin Δ )
R 4 = A sin ( 2 Ψ ) ( I 3 sin Δ + I 4 cos Δ )
R 1 = A I 1 ( 1 + cos 2 2 Ψ ) R 2 cos 2 Ψ
M f c = l = 0 L R ( Δ α ( l , t ) ) m f ( Δ l b ( l , t ) ) R ( Δ α ( l , t ) )
m f = [ 1 0 0 exp ( i 2 π Δ l b ( l , t ) ) ]

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