Abstract

In an integral imaging display, the computer-generated integral imaging method has been widely used to create the elemental images from a given three-dimensional object data. Long processing time, however, has been problematic especially when the three-dimensional object data set or the number of the elemental lenses are large. In this paper, we propose an image space parallel processing method, which is implemented by using Open Computer Language (OpenCL) for rapid generation of the elemental images sets from large three-dimensional volume data. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to realize a real-time interactive integral imaging display system for 3D volume data constructed from computational tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).
  2. J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J. M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH '96, Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques 31–36 (1996).
  4. Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Halle, “Multiple viewpoint rendering,” SIGGRAPH '98, Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques 243–254 (1998).
  6. S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B.-N.-R. Lee, Y. Cho, K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, J.-S. Lim, M. C. Whang, and K. R. Park, “Design and implementation of a fast integral image rendering method,” International Conference on Electronic Commerce 2006, 135–140 (2006).
  9. K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).
  10. R. Fernando, GPU Gems: Programming Techniques, Tips and Tricks for Real-Time Graphics (Addison-Wesley, 2004).
  11. Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. NVIDIA, “OpenCL programming guide for the CUDA architecture,” Ver. 2.3 (2009).
  13. NVIDIA, “CUDA C programming guide,” Ver. 3.1.1 (2010).
  14. E. Angel, Interactive Computer Graphics: A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2000).

2010 (1)

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).

2006 (1)

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Baasantseren, G.

Cho, Y.

K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-S.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, M.

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, Y.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-S.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. M.

Kim, J.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J. M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J. M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

Min, S.-W.

K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J. M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K. S.

K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K.-H.

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446–451 (1908).

IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E (1)

K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, and Y. Cho, “Viewpoint vector rendering for efficient elemental image generation,” IEICE – Transactions on Information and Systems, E 90-D, 233–241 (2007).

J. Korea Contents Assoc. (1)

Y.-H. Jang, C. Park, J.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, N. Kim, J.-S. Ha, and K.-H. Yoo, “Integral imaging pickup method of bio-medical data using GPU and Octree,” J. Korea Contents Assoc. 10(6), 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, K. S. Park, B. Lee, Y. Cho, and M. Hahn, “Enhanced image mapping algorithm for computer-generated integral imaging system,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(28), L744–L747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Igarashi, H. Murata, and M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17(9), 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (7)

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” SIGGRAPH '96, Proceedings of the 23rd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques 31–36 (1996).

M. Halle, “Multiple viewpoint rendering,” SIGGRAPH '98, Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques 243–254 (1998).

B.-N.-R. Lee, Y. Cho, K. S. Park, S.-W. Min, J.-S. Lim, M. C. Whang, and K. R. Park, “Design and implementation of a fast integral image rendering method,” International Conference on Electronic Commerce 2006, 135–140 (2006).

R. Fernando, GPU Gems: Programming Techniques, Tips and Tricks for Real-Time Graphics (Addison-Wesley, 2004).

NVIDIA, “OpenCL programming guide for the CUDA architecture,” Ver. 2.3 (2009).

NVIDIA, “CUDA C programming guide,” Ver. 3.1.1 (2010).

E. Angel, Interactive Computer Graphics: A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, 2000).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (13847 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry of elemental image generation and (b) an example of elemental images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Architecture of the proposed image space parallel processing method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

View matrix of an elemental lens and transformation matrix of 3D volume data when CTn is the information of the (i, j)-th elemental lens center and nCD is the direction vectors of lens array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OpenCL parallel processing structure map for (i, j)-th elemental image corresponding to the (i, j)-th elemental lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concept of image based rendering for generating an elemental image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of (a) 3D volume Data, (b) elemental images set generated by the proposed method and (c) 3D image optically reconstructed using integral imaging display system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

3D objects and displayed 3D images in experiments; (a) Bucky: 32 × 32 × 32, (b) Mummy: 256 × 128 × 128, (c) Male: 128 × 256 × 256, (d) CTA: 512 × 512 × 79 and (e) Mouse: 512 × 512 × 512.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Processing time of elemental images set generation for (a) various numbers of elemental lenses and (b) input data size, and (c) various number of pixel size of an elemental image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The generating time of an elemental image for 512 × 512 × 512 input 3D volume data from (a) 200 × 200 number of lens array when each lens has 3 × 3 pixels and (b) 30 × 30 number of lens array, when each lens has 20 × 20 pixels (Media 1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The measurement result of generation for CGII

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