Abstract

We introduce a phase-control holographic technique to characterize scattering media with the purpose of focusing light through it. The system generates computer-generated holograms implemented via a deformable mirror device (DMD) based on micro-electro-mechanical technology. The DMD can be updated at high data rates, enabling high speed wavefront measurements using the transmission matrix method. The transmission matrix of a scattering material determines the hologram required for focusing through the scatterer. We demonstrate this technique measuring a transmission matrix with 256 input modes and a single output mode in 33.8 ms and creating a focus with a signal to background ratio of 160. We also demonstrate focusing through a temporally dynamic, strongly scattering sample with short speckle decorrelation times.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. I. Freund, “Looking through walls and around corners,” Physica A 168(1), 49–65 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Cui, “Parallel wavefront optimization method for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 870–872 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express (submitted).
    [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, G. Laporte, and D. Psaltis, “Imaging through turbid layers by scanning the phase conjugated second harmonic radiation from a nanoparticle,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20723–20731 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430(2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Akbulut, T. J. Huisman, E. G. van Putten, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing light through random photonic media by binary amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4017–4029 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Cui, “A high speed wavefront determination method based on spatial frequency modulations for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2989–2995 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Kohlgraf-Owens and A. Dogariu, “Finding the field transfer matrix of scattering media,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13225–13232 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. H. Lee, “Computer-Generated Holograms: Techniques and Applications,” in Progress in Optics XVI, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).
  23. C. Rathjen, “Statistical properties of phase-shift algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1997–2008 (1995).
  24. K. Freischlad and C. L. Koliopoulos, “Fourier description of digital phase-measuring interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7(4), 542–551 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (9)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, G. Laporte, and D. Psaltis, “Imaging through turbid layers by scanning the phase conjugated second harmonic radiation from a nanoparticle,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20723–20731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430(2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kohlgraf-Owens and A. Dogariu, “Finding the field transfer matrix of scattering media,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13225–13232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Rathjen, “Statistical properties of phase-shift algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1997–2008 (1995).

1990 (2)

Aegerter, C. M.

Akbulut, D.

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, A. N.

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express (submitted).
[PubMed]

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express (submitted).
[PubMed]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express (submitted).
[PubMed]

Cui, M.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freischlad, K.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, “Looking through walls and around corners,” Physica A 168(1), 49–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Hsieh, C. L.

Huisman, T. J.

Kang, P.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohlgraf-Owens, T.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Lagendijk, A.

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, G.

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDowell, E. J.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

D. Akbulut, T. J. Huisman, E. G. van Putten, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing light through random photonic media by binary amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4017–4029 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piestun, R.

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express (submitted).
[PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Rathjen, C.

C. Rathjen, “Statistical properties of phase-shift algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1997–2008 (1995).

Senekerimyan, V.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Putten, E. G.

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430(2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, W. L.

Wang, L. V.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, E. J. McDowell, and C. Yang, “An in vivo study of turbidity suppression by optical phase conjugation (TSOPC) on rabbit ear,” Opt. Express 18(1), 25–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, Z. Yaqoob, and C. Yang, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusive regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 025004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat Commun. (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Image transmission through an opaque material,” Nat Commun. 1(6), 81 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, P. Kang, K. J. Lee, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and W. Choi, “Overcoming the diffraction limit using multiple light scattering in a highly disordered medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(2), 023902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica A (1)

I. Freund, “Looking through walls and around corners,” Physica A 168(1), 49–65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430(2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” Proc. SPIE 4985, 14–25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. H. Lee, “Computer-Generated Holograms: Techniques and Applications,” in Progress in Optics XVI, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978).

Supplementary Material (3)

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