Abstract

Optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs), based on optical fiber loops to act as a high-Q cavity, are capable of generating stable radio-frequencies (RF). The long-term frequency stability of the OEO is then limited by the cavity variation that is mainly induced by temperature sensitivity of the optical fiber. In order to actively stabilize the OEO cavity, we employ the technique of RF transfer over optical fibers. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a dual-loop-OEO scheme to enhance the long-term stability with an injected probe signal to monitor the phase variation in the fiber loops. The experimental results show that the resulting spread-spectrum signal is useful in monitoring the fiber delay without observable interference. The relationships between the measured frequency and the monitored delay are theoretically and numerically discussed. We also estimate the long-term stability of the proposed OEO scheme with the cavity phase correction. The corrected result shows the long-term frequency stability of the proposed OEO is within 8.4×10−8 at one day.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (3)

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, E. J. Adles, E. C. Levy, W. Zhou, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, and M. Horowitz, “Spurious mode reduction in dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5839–5854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kim and D. Cho, “Optoelectronic oscillator stabilized to an intra-loop Fabry-Perot cavity by a dual servo system,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14905–14912 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53(3), 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications-a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30(5), 855–884 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standard,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adles, E. J.

Aida, M.

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standard,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Amagai, J.

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blasche, G.

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53(3), 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buczek, L.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Cassan, E.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, Ch.

Chazelas, J.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.

Clairon, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, S.

Daryoush, A. S.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deborgies, F.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decoster, D.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duy, N. L.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferre-Pikal, E.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujieda, M.

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotoh, T.

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hobiger, T.

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holleville, D.

Holzwarth, R.

Horowitz, M.

Hosokawa, M.

Jiang, H.

Journet, B.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaba, M.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kéfélian, F.

Kim, J. M.

Kitching, J.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krehlik, P.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, M.

Lemonde, P.

Levy, E. C.

Li, H.-W.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipinski, M.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, A. N.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

Menyuk, C. R.

Millo, J.

Milstein, L. B.

R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications-a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30(5), 855–884 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, S.

Nam, L. V. H.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Okusaga, O.

Pickholtz, R. L.

R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications-a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30(5), 855–884 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

Quiquempois, Y.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romisch, S.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salik, E.

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schilling, D. L.

R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications-a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30(5), 855–884 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

Sliwczynski, L.

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

Swann, W. C.

Terra, O.

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilcot, J.-P.

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, F.

Walls, F. L.

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. A.

Yao, X. S.

Yem, V. V.

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

Zhou, W.

O. Okusaga, E. J. Adles, E. C. Levy, W. Zhou, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, and M. Horowitz, “Spurious mode reduction in dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5839–5854 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53(3), 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. L. Duy, L. V. H. Nam, V. V. Yem, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, and B. Journet, “Materials used for the optical section of an optoelectronic oscillator,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 1(4), 045008 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

M. Kaba, H.-W. Li, A. S. Daryoush, J.-P. Vilcot, D. Decoster, J. Chazelas, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, and F. Deborgies, “Improving thermal stability of opto-electronic oscillators,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 7(4), 38–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications-a tutorial,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 30(5), 855–884 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

T. Gotoh, J. Amagai, T. Hobiger, M. Fujieda, and M. Aida, “Development of a GPU based two-way time transfer modem,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(7), 2495–2499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ł. Śliwczyński, P. Krehlik, Ł. Buczek, and M. Lipiński, “Active propagation delay stabilization for fiber optic frequency distribution using controlled electronic delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 60(4), 1480–1488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53(3), 929–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. Romisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferre-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 580–583 (2002).

D. A. Howe and A. Hati, “Low-noise X-band oscillator and amplifier technologies: comparison and status,” in Proceedings of 2005 Joint Meeting IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications, pp. 481–487 (2005).

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A. Bauch, D. Piester, M. Fujieda, and W. Lewandowski, “Directive for operational use and data handling in two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT),” Rapport BIPM-2011/01, http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/rapportBIPM/2011/01.pdf .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of a dual-loop OEO. PD: photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the frequency selection in the dual-loop OEO. Δ ν 1 and Δ ν 2 are the mode spacings of the long and short loops respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. Laser: 1310 nm direct modulation laser module; PD: photodetector module; SMF: single-mode fiber; AMP: amplifier; ATT: variable attenuator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectrum of OEO tone at 69.3 MHz and probe signal centered at 88 MHz (a) Direct RF output. (b) Further filtered RF output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase noise data of a dual-loop OEO. Various RF outputs, without and with probe signal, and with probe signal after a SAW filter, are compared.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured fractional frequency variation of the OEO versus negative value of long fiber delay variation. (a) Comparison of the frequency (red curve) and negative long fiber delay variation (blue curve). (b) Correlation between them.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Allan deviation of measured and corrected frequencies of a dual-loop OEO. The correction are made according to the relation in Fig. 6(b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase noise of a dual-loop OEO under various gain conditions in the short loop.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Allan deviation of a dual-loop OEO under various gain conditions in the short loop.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Temperature Sensitivity of Delays of Various Parts

Equations (2)

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f o = k τ 1 = m τ 2 ,
Δ f o f o = Δ τ 1 τ 1 .

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