Abstract

Past years have seen the development of different approaches to detect phytoplankton groups from space. One of these methods, the PHYSAT one, is empirically based on reflectance anomalies. Despite observations in good agreement with in situ measurements, the underlying theoretical explanation of the method is still missing and needed by the ocean color community as it prevents improvements of the methods and characterization of uncertainties on the inversed products. In this study, radiative transfer simulations are used in addition to in situ measurements to understand the organization of the signals used in PHYSAT. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the impact of the variability of the following three parameters on the reflectance anomalies: specific phytoplankton absorption, colored dissolved organic matter absorption, and particles backscattering. While the later parameter explains the largest part of the anomalies variability, results show that each group is generally associated with a specific bio-optical environment which should be considered to improve methods of phytoplankton groups detection.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Loisel, B. Lubac, D. Dessailly, L. Duforet-Gaurier, and V. Vantrepotte, “Effect of inherent optical properties variability on the chlorophyll retrieval from ocean color remote sensing: an in situ approach,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20949–20959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Are the empirical relationships describing the bio-optical properties of case 1 waters consistent and internally compatible?” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C1), C01016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by Colored Detrital Matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. D. DuRand, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 48(8-9), 1983–2003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39(18), 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

1988

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 water),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(1), 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20(2), 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alvain, S.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avril, B.

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Balch, W. M.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barciela, R. M.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bécu, G.

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, J.

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F. M.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brewin, R. J.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by Colored Detrital Matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(1), 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burkill, P. H.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caverhill, C.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiavérini, J.

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, S. W.

M. D. DuRand, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 48(8-9), 1983–2003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ciotti, A.

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by Colored Detrital Matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

Dandonneau, Y.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dessailly, D.

Devred, E.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duforet-Gaurier, L.

DuRand, M. D.

M. D. DuRand, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 48(8-9), 1983–2003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Guillard, R. L.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guillocheau, N.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansell, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haralabous, J.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hardman-Mountford, N. J.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hirata, T.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kostadinov, T.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavender, S. J.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leakey, R. J. G.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, B. Lubac, D. Dessailly, L. Duforet-Gaurier, and V. Vantrepotte, “Effect of inherent optical properties variability on the chlorophyll retrieval from ocean color remote sensing: an in situ approach,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20949–20959 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39(18), 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lubac, B.

Maass, H.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maravelias, C. D.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marty, J.-C.

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montel, Y.

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Are the empirical relationships describing the bio-optical properties of case 1 waters consistent and internally compatible?” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C1), C01016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 water),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(1), 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, C.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Nelson, N. B.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J.-M.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

M. D. DuRand, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 48(8-9), 1983–2003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oubelkheir, K.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pizay, M.-D.

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulton, A.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, Y.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(1), 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Raitsos, D. E.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ras, J.

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reid, P. C.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Reynolds, R. A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, A. J.

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sciandra, A.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, D. A.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sleigh, M. A.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39(18), 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thieuleux, F.

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uitz, J.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaillancourt, R. D.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vantrepotte, V.

Vellucci, V.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watts, L.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zubkov, M. V.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biogeosciences

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern south pacific ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Breon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr.

J. Aiken, Y. Pradhan, R. Barlow, S. Lavender, A. Poulton, P. Holligan, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, ““Phytoplankton pigments and functional types in the Atlantic Ocean: a decadal assessment, 1995-2005,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(15), 899–917 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, P. Y. Deschamps, J.-M. Nicolas, H. Loisel, J. Blanchot, Y. Montel, F. Thieuleux, and G. Bécu, “Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean color and composition of phytoplankton communities in the North Atlantic, Equatorial Pacific and South Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 51(1-3), 303–318 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Marty, J. Chiavérini, M.-D. Pizay, and B. Avril, “Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999),” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 49(11), 1965–1985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. DuRand, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Phytoplankton population dynamics at the Bermuda Atlantic time series station in the Sargasso Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 48(8-9), 1983–2003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ecol. Modell.

R. J. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, T. Hirata, S. Lavender, R. M. Barciela, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “A three-component model of phytoplankton size class for the Atlantic Ocean,” Ecol. Modell. 221(11), 1472–1483 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel, “Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(3), GB3001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and S. B. Hooker, “Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C8), C08005 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 water),” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C9), 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: Analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Are the empirical relationships describing the bio-optical properties of case 1 waters consistent and internally compatible?” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C1), C01016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, and D. A. Hansell, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, “Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C11), C11010 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Plankton Res.

R. D. Vaillancourt, C. Brown, R. L. Guillard, and W. M. Balch, “Light backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton: relationships to cell size, chemical composition and taxonomy,” J. Plankton Res. 26(2), 191–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a re-examination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(3), 955–973 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(1), 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Raitsos, S. J. Lavender, C. D. Maravelias, J. Haralabous, A. J. Richardson, and P. C. Reid, “Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(2), 605–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods

A. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by Colored Detrital Matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.

S. Sathyendranath, L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass, “Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean-colour data,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 272, 59–68 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Prog. Oceanogr.

M. V. Zubkov, M. A. Sleigh, P. H. Burkill, and R. J. G. Leakey, “Picoplankton community structure on the Atlantic Meridional Transect: a comparison between seasons,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45(3-4), 369–386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98(1), 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

A. Longhurst, Ecological Geography of the Sea, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif. (2007).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery. A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, USA), 1983).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of steps followed to achieve theoretical analysis of ocean color radiances anomalies sensibility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) nLwref-theo(λ) and (b) nLwref-PHYSAT(λ) normalized radiance spectra for different Chl a values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chl a as a function of the “maximum band” of the blue to green ratio r (see Eq. (6)) for the OC4v4 SeaWiFS algorithm (gray line, with a = −1.532,b = 0.649,c = 1.93,d = −3.067,e = 0.366 in Eq. (6)), Hydrolight output (black line, with a = 1.351,b = 0.301,c = −0.09,d = −2.37,e = 0.433 in Eq. (6)), superimposed with NOMAD [38] in situ measurements (light gray).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of semi-empirically and from inversion defined relationships between acdom (a) or bbp (b) and chlorophyll a concentration at 412 nm. Note that the bbp vs. Chl a mean relationship is established by multiplying the mean bp vs. Chl a relationship by 0.008 which represent the particulate backscattering ratio value used in the simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical radiance anomalies as a function of wavelength in response to IOP (aphy, acdom and bp) variability, for three fixed chlorophyll concentration: 0.2 (blue lines), 1(green lines) and 2(red lines) mg.m−3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical mean radiance anomalies as a function of wavelength, in response to variation in acdom (a), a*phy(b) and bp(c) for a chlorophyll a concentration of 1mg.m−3. Results are obtained for realistic parameters variations for the following phytoplankton groups: nanoeucaryotes (blue), picoplankton cyanobacteria (green) and diatoms (red).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean radiance anomalies for Nanoeucaryotes (blue), Picoplanktonic cyanobacteria (green) and diatoms (red) as a function of wavelength obtained theoretically (a) and observed empirically in PHYSAT (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Realistic view of acdom (horizontal lines), aphy*(right tilt lines) and bbp (left tilt lines) contribution at 412nm for waters dominated by nanoeucayotes (a), diatoms (b) or Picoplanktonic cyanobacteria (c). Gray points are those for which the considered group is dominant based on NOMAD pigments inventories and color points are those well identified by PHYSAT (nanoeucaryotes in blue, diatoms in red and Picoplanktonic cyanobacteria in green). The contribution of each IOP (%) is calculated by considering that the sum of each IOP (acdom, bbp and aphy) measurements assemblage is one and by computing the respective contribution of each parameter.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of PHYSAT validation based on SeaWiFS daily measurements derived from the 2008 version of PHYSAT [13]a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean ratio of aphy*, acdom and bp for the mean Chl a values for each groups, relative to a reference computed from the mean relationships (used to parameterize Hydrolight) applied to all the in situ and SeaWiFS matchups available

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Table 3 Mean ratio of aphy*, acdom and bp values between diatoms and nanoeucaryotes phytoplankton groups, based on mean relationships (Eqs. (2)-(5)) and from in situ measurements

Tables Icon

Table 4 Minimum and maximum values of the nLwref-theo(λ) and nLwref-PHYSAT(λ) normalized radiance spectra at each SeaWiFS wavelength

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ra( λ )= nLw( λ ) nL w ref ( λ,Chla )
a phy (λ)=A [Chla] [ E ]
a cdom (λ)=0.065 [Chla] 0.75 exp( 0.014(λ443) )
b p (λ)=0.30 [Chla] 0.62 ( λ 660 ) γ
γ=0.55log[Chla]+1.6
log(Chl a) = a log 4 (R) +b log 3 (R) +c log 2 (R)+d log(R) + e
r = Max( R rs (443),R rs (490), R rs (510) ) R rs (555)

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