Abstract

Remote sensing of aerosol optical properties is difficult, but multi-angle, multi-spectral, polarimetric instruments have the potential to retrieve sufficient information about aerosols that they can be used to improve global climate models. However, the complexity of these instruments means that it is difficult to intuitively understand the relationship between instrument design and retrieval success. We apply a Bayesian statistical technique that relates instrument characteristics to the information contained in an observation. Using realistic simulations of fine size mode dominated spherical aerosols, we investigate three instrument designs. Two of these represent instruments currently in orbit: the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the POLarization and Directionality of the Earths Reflectances (POLDER). The third is the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), which failed to reach orbit during recent launch, but represents a viable design for future instruments. The results show fundamental differences between the three, and offer suggestions for future instrument design and the optimal retrieval strategy for current instruments. Generally, our results agree with previous validation efforts of POLDER and airborne prototypes of APS, but show that the MISR aerosol optical thickness uncertainty characterization is possibly underestimated.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).

M. Ottaviani, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, B. Van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. Obland, and R. Rogers, “Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the deepwater horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ.121, 389–403 (2012).

2011

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

O. Dubovik, M. Herman, A. Holdak, T. Lapyonok, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, F. Ducos, A. Sinyuk, and A. Lopatin, “Statistically optimized inversion algorithm for enhanced retrieval of aerosol properties from spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 975–1018 (2011).

O. Hasekamp, P. Litvinov, and A. Butz, “Aerosol properties over the ocean from parasol multiangle photopolarimetric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.116, D14204 (2011).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 6245–6263 (2011).

O. Kalashnikova, M. Garay, A. Davis, D. Diner, and J. Martonchik, “Sensitivity of multi-angle photo-polarimetry to vertical layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols: Quantifying measurement uncertainties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.112, 2149–2163 (2011).

J. Hansen, M. Sato, P. Kharecha, and K. von Schuckmann, “Earth’s energy imbalance and implications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 13421–13449 (2011).

J. Penner, L. Xu, and M. Wang, “Satellite methods underestimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13404–13408 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010

N. Loeb and W. Su, “Direct aerosol radiative forcing uncertainty based on a radiative perturbation analysis,” J. Climate23, 5288–5293 (2010).

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

O. P. Hasekamp, “Capability of multi-viewing-angle photo-polarimetric measurements for the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 839–851 (2010).

M. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. Lacis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111, 540–5522010.

R. Levy, L. Remer, R. Kleidman, S. Mattoo, C. Ichoku, R. Kahn, and T. Eck, “Global evaluation of the collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10, 10399–10420 (2010).

S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

P. Litvinov, O. Hasekamp, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Reflection models for soil and vegetation surfaces from multiple-viewing angle photopolarimetric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 529–539 (2010).

2009

G. Myhre, T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, S. Schwartz, and K. Yttri, “Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1365–1392 (2009).

R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res.114, D01206 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

2008

C. Rodgers and B. Connor, “Intercomparison of remote sounding instruments,” J. Geophys. Res.108, D34116 (2008).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, C. Schaaf, B. Schmid, and M. Román, “Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D20105 (2008).

L. A. Remer, R. G. Kleidman, R. C. Levy, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, J. V. Martins, C. Ichoku, I. Koren, H. Yu, and B. Holben, “Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D14S07 (2008).

2007

X. Jiang, Y. Liu, B. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Comparison of MISR aerosol optical thickness with AERONET measurements in Beijing metropolitan area,” Remote Sens. Environ.107, 45–53 (2007).

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, “PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance,” Appl. Opt.46, 5435–5451 (2007).
[PubMed]

O. Hasekamp and J. Landgraf, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land surfaces: capabilities of multiple-viewing-angle intensity and polarization measurements,” Appl. Opt.46, 3332–3344 (2007).
[PubMed]

V. Zubko, Y. Kaufman, R. Burg, and J. Martins, “Principal component analysis of remote sensing of aerosols over oceans,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.45, 730–745 (2007).

R. Kahn, M. Garay, D. Nelson, K. Yau, M. Bull, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, and R. Levy, “Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with aeronet and implications for climatological studies,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D18205 (2007).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. Schueler, B. Fafaul, J. Hansen, R. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. Maring, and L. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.88, 687–691 (2007).

2006

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt.45, 5542–5567 (2006).
[PubMed]

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. Schaepman, T. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing: definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103, 27–42 (2006).

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, and R. Kleidman, “Comparison of three years of Terra and Aqua MODIS aerosol optical thickness over the global oceans,” IEEE Lett. Geosci. Remote Sens.3, 537– 540 (2006).

2005

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben. “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S04 (2005).

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Using multi-angle multispectral photo-polarimetry of the NASA Glory mission to constrain optical properties of aerosols and clouds: results from four field experiments,” Proc. SPIE5978, 59780G (2005).

2004

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Hansen, L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.88, 149–161 (2004).

S. Christopher and J. Wang, “Intercomparison between multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) and sunphotometer aerosol optical thickness in dust source regions over China: implications for satellite aerosol retrievals and radiative forcing calculations,” Tellus, Ser. B56, 451–456 (2004).

Y. Liu, J. Sarnat, B. Coull, P. Koutrakis, and D. Jacob, “Validation of multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) aerosol optical thickness measurements using aerosol robotic network (AERONET) observations over the contiguous United States,” J. Geophys. Res.109, D06205 (2004).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, and B. Holben, “Comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depths over desert sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett.31, L16102 (2004).

2003

R. Levy, L. Remer, D. Tanré, Y. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. Holben, J. Livingston, P. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res.108, D198594 (2003).

M. King, W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. Gao, S. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. Hubanks, “Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.41, 442–458 (2003).

B. Cairns, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols,” Proc Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp.518–520 (2003).

2002

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 383–397 (2002).

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature419, 215–223 (2002).
[PubMed]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. Kaufman, M. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 590–608 (2002).

C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, “Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.40, 1520–1532 (2002).

2001

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the research scanning polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 243–246 (2001).

2000

W. Lucht, C. Schaaf, and A. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.38, 977–998 (2000).

1999

F. Nadal and F.-M. Breon, “Parameterization of surface polarized reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.37, 1709 (1999).

1998

B. Holben, Y. Kaufman, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, and J. Reagan, “AERONET – a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66, 1–16 (1998).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

1997

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, and B. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res.102, 17,051–17,067 (1997).

1996

D. Tanre, M. Herman, and Y. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res.101, 19,043–19,060 (1996).

1995

F. Breon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.33, 487–499 (1995).

1994

P. Deschamps, F. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.32, 598–615 (1994).

1987

J. de Haan, P. Bosma, and J. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys.183, 371–391 (1987).

1984

W. De Rooij and C. Van der Stap, “Expansion of Mie scattering matrices in generalized spherical functions,” Astron. Astrophys.131, 237–248 (1984).

1978

Y. Kawata, “Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres,” Icarus33, 217–232 (1978).

1974

J. Hansen and L. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16, 527–610 (1974).

1954

Abdou, W.

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

C. Bruegge, W. Abdou, D. Diner, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, and J. Martonchik. “Validating the MISR radiometric scale for the ocean aerosol science communities.” in Proceedings of The International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration (AA. Balkema Publishers, 2004).

Ackerman, S.

M. King, W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. Gao, S. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. Hubanks, “Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.41, 442–458 (2003).

Ackerman, T.

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

Beckert, J.

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

Bellouin, N.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

Benami, O.

S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

Bennouna, Y.

L. Curier, G. de Leeuw, P. Kolmonen, A.-M. Sundstrom, L. Sogacheva, and Y. Bennouna, “Aerosol retrieval over land using the (A)ATSR dual-view algorithm,” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009).

Berglen, T.

G. Myhre, T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, S. Schwartz, and K. Yttri, “Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1365–1392 (2009).

Bergstrom, R. W.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 6245–6263 (2011).

Berntsen, T.

G. Myhre, T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, S. Schwartz, and K. Yttri, “Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1365–1392 (2009).

Bosma, P.

J. de Haan, P. Bosma, and J. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys.183, 371–391 (1987).

Boucher, O.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

Y. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature419, 215–223 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bracco, G.

Breon, F.

F. Breon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, and M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.33, 487–499 (1995).

Breon, F.-M.

F. Nadal and F.-M. Breon, “Parameterization of surface polarized reflectance derived from POLDER spaceborne measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.37, 1709 (1999).

Bréon, F.

P. Deschamps, F. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.32, 598–615 (1994).

Bréon, F. M.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

Bricaud, A.

P. Deschamps, F. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.32, 598–615 (1994).

Bruegge, C.

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

C. Bruegge, W. Abdou, D. Diner, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, and J. Martonchik. “Validating the MISR radiometric scale for the ocean aerosol science communities.” in Proceedings of The International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration (AA. Balkema Publishers, 2004).

Buis, J.

B. Holben, Y. Kaufman, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, and J. Reagan, “AERONET – a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66, 1–16 (1998).

Bull, M.

R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

R. Kahn, M. Garay, D. Nelson, K. Yau, M. Bull, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, and R. Levy, “Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with aeronet and implications for climatological studies,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D18205 (2007).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, “Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.40, 1520–1532 (2002).

Burg, R.

V. Zubko, Y. Kaufman, R. Burg, and J. Martins, “Principal component analysis of remote sensing of aerosols over oceans,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.45, 730–745 (2007).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Hansen, L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.88, 149–161 (2004).

Buriez, J.

P. Deschamps, F. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.32, 598–615 (1994).

Burton, S.

M. Ottaviani, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, B. Van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. Obland, and R. Rogers, “Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the deepwater horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ.121, 389–403 (2012).

Butz, A.

O. Hasekamp, P. Litvinov, and A. Butz, “Aerosol properties over the ocean from parasol multiangle photopolarimetric measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.116, D14204 (2011).

Cairns, B.

M. Ottaviani, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, B. Van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. Obland, and R. Rogers, “Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the deepwater horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ.121, 389–403 (2012).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 6245–6263 (2011).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

P. Litvinov, O. Hasekamp, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Reflection models for soil and vegetation surfaces from multiple-viewing angle photopolarimetric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 529–539 (2010).

S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

M. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. Lacis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111, 540–5522010.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res.114, D01206 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, C. Schaaf, B. Schmid, and M. Román, “Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D20105 (2008).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. Schueler, B. Fafaul, J. Hansen, R. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. Maring, and L. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.88, 687–691 (2007).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt.45, 5542–5567 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Using multi-angle multispectral photo-polarimetry of the NASA Glory mission to constrain optical properties of aerosols and clouds: results from four field experiments,” Proc. SPIE5978, 59780G (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Hansen, L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.88, 149–161 (2004).

B. Cairns, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols,” Proc Geosci. Remote Sens. Symp.518–520 (2003).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 383–397 (2002).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the research scanning polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 243–246 (2001).

B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, and J. Deuzé, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009), pp. 295–325.

Carlson, B.

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

Charlson, R.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

Chin, M.

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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).

M. Ottaviani, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, B. Van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. Obland, and R. Rogers, “Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the deepwater horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ.121, 389–403 (2012).

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res.114, D01206 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt.45, 5542–5567 (2006).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Using multi-angle multispectral photo-polarimetry of the NASA Glory mission to constrain optical properties of aerosols and clouds: results from four field experiments,” Proc. SPIE5978, 59780G (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 383–397 (2002).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the research scanning polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 243–246 (2001).

B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, and J. Deuzé, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009), pp. 295–325.

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G. Myhre, T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, S. Schwartz, and K. Yttri, “Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1365–1392 (2009).

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S. Christopher, J. Haywood, Y. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L. A. Remer, T. Takemure, D. Tanré, O. Torres, C. Trepte, B. Wielicki, D. Winker, and H. Yu, “An “A-Train” strategy for quantifying direct climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.86, 1795–1809 (2005).

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Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, and B. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res.102, 17,051–17,067 (1997).

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L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

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D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

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Y. Liu, J. Sarnat, B. Coull, P. Koutrakis, and D. Jacob, “Validation of multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) aerosol optical thickness measurements using aerosol robotic network (AERONET) observations over the contiguous United States,” J. Geophys. Res.109, D06205 (2004).

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Crean, K.

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben. “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S04 (2005).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, “Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.40, 1520–1532 (2002).

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

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D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

Davis, A.

O. Kalashnikova, M. Garay, A. Davis, D. Diner, and J. Martonchik, “Sensitivity of multi-angle photo-polarimetry to vertical layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols: Quantifying measurement uncertainties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.112, 2149–2163 (2011).

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A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, and J. Deuzé, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009), pp. 295–325.

Deuzé, J. L.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

O. Dubovik, M. Herman, A. Holdak, T. Lapyonok, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, F. Ducos, A. Sinyuk, and A. Lopatin, “Statistically optimized inversion algorithm for enhanced retrieval of aerosol properties from spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 975–1018 (2011).

Diner, D.

O. Kalashnikova, M. Garay, A. Davis, D. Diner, and J. Martonchik, “Sensitivity of multi-angle photo-polarimetry to vertical layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols: Quantifying measurement uncertainties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.112, 2149–2163 (2011).

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben. “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S04 (2005).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, and B. Holben, “Comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depths over desert sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett.31, L16102 (2004).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and M. Bull, “Regional aerosol retrieval results from MISR,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.40, 1520–1532 (2002).

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, and D. Diner. “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land using MISR observations,” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009), pp. 267–293.

C. Bruegge, W. Abdou, D. Diner, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, and J. Martonchik. “Validating the MISR radiometric scale for the ocean aerosol science communities.” in Proceedings of The International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration (AA. Balkema Publishers, 2004).

Dubovik, O.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

O. Dubovik, M. Herman, A. Holdak, T. Lapyonok, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, F. Ducos, A. Sinyuk, and A. Lopatin, “Statistically optimized inversion algorithm for enhanced retrieval of aerosol properties from spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 975–1018 (2011).

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. Kaufman, M. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 590–608 (2002).

Ducos, F.

O. Dubovik, M. Herman, A. Holdak, T. Lapyonok, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, F. Ducos, A. Sinyuk, and A. Lopatin, “Statistically optimized inversion algorithm for enhanced retrieval of aerosol properties from spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 975–1018 (2011).

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

Eck, T.

R. Levy, L. Remer, R. Kleidman, S. Mattoo, C. Ichoku, R. Kahn, and T. Eck, “Global evaluation of the collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10, 10399–10420 (2010).

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. Kaufman, M. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci.59, 590–608 (2002).

B. Holben, Y. Kaufman, T. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, and J. Reagan, “AERONET – a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ.66, 1–16 (1998).

Emde, C.

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

Fafaul, B.

S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. Schueler, B. Fafaul, J. Hansen, R. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. Maring, and L. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.88, 687–691 (2007).

Fahey, D.

G. Myhre, T. Berglen, M. Johnsrud, C. Hoyle, T. Berntsen, S. Christopher, D. Fahey, I. Isaksen, T. Jones, R. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, S. Schwartz, and K. Yttri, “Modelled radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect with multi-observation evaluation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.9, 1365–1392 (2009).

Ferrare, R.

M. Ottaviani, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, B. Van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. Obland, and R. Rogers, “Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the deepwater horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ.121, 389–403 (2012).

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

Fougnie, B.

François, P.

D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

Freitag, S.

K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

Gaitley, B.

R. Kahn, M. Garay, D. Nelson, K. Yau, M. Bull, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, and R. Levy, “Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with aeronet and implications for climatological studies,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D18205 (2007).

R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben. “Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) global aerosol optical depth validation based on 2 years of coincident Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S04 (2005).

W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

J. Martonchik, D. Diner, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, and B. Holben, “Comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depths over desert sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett.31, L16102 (2004).

D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

C. Bruegge, W. Abdou, D. Diner, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, and J. Martonchik. “Validating the MISR radiometric scale for the ocean aerosol science communities.” in Proceedings of The International Workshop on Radiometric and Geometric Calibration (AA. Balkema Publishers, 2004).

Gao, B.

M. King, W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. Gao, S. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. Hubanks, “Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.41, 442–458 (2003).

Gao, F.

C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

Garay, M.

O. Kalashnikova, M. Garay, A. Davis, D. Diner, and J. Martonchik, “Sensitivity of multi-angle photo-polarimetry to vertical layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols: Quantifying measurement uncertainties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.112, 2149–2163 (2011).

A. Kokhanovsky, J. Deuzé, D. Diner, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, C. Emde, M. Garay, R. Grainger, A. Heckel, M. Herman, I. Katsev, J. Keller, R. Levy, P. North, A. Prikhach, V. Rozanov, A. Sayer, Y. Ota, D. Tanré, G. Thomas, and E. Zege, “The inter-comparison of major satellite aerosol retrieval algorithms using simulated intensity and polarization characteristics of reflected light,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.3, 909–932 (2010).

R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

R. Kahn, M. Garay, D. Nelson, K. Yau, M. Bull, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, and R. Levy, “Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with aeronet and implications for climatological studies,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D18205 (2007).

Geogdzhayev, I.

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

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R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

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M. King, W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. Gao, S. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. Hubanks, “Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.41, 442–458 (2003).

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M. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. Lacis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111, 540–5522010.

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

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R. Levy, L. Remer, R. Kleidman, S. Mattoo, C. Ichoku, R. Kahn, and T. Eck, “Global evaluation of the collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10, 10399–10420 (2010).

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L. A. Remer, R. G. Kleidman, R. C. Levy, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, J. V. Martins, C. Ichoku, I. Koren, H. Yu, and B. Holben, “Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D14S07 (2008).

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L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

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C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

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D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 1383–1395 (2011).

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Liu, L.

M. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. Lacis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111, 540–5522010.

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

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X. Jiang, Y. Liu, B. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Comparison of MISR aerosol optical thickness with AERONET measurements in Beijing metropolitan area,” Remote Sens. Environ.107, 45–53 (2007).

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R. Levy, L. Remer, D. Tanré, Y. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. Holben, J. Livingston, P. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res.108, D198594 (2003).

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O. Dubovik, M. Herman, A. Holdak, T. Lapyonok, D. Tanré, J. L. Deuzé, F. Ducos, A. Sinyuk, and A. Lopatin, “Statistically optimized inversion algorithm for enhanced retrieval of aerosol properties from spectral multi-angle polarimetric satellite observations,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.4, 975–1018 (2011).

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C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

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M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. Schueler, B. Fafaul, J. Hansen, R. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. Maring, and L. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.88, 687–691 (2007).

R. Levy, L. Remer, D. Tanré, Y. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. Holben, J. Livingston, P. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res.108, D198594 (2003).

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L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

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L. A. Remer, R. G. Kleidman, R. C. Levy, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, J. V. Martins, C. Ichoku, I. Koren, H. Yu, and B. Holben, “Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D14S07 (2008).

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O. Kalashnikova, M. Garay, A. Davis, D. Diner, and J. Martonchik, “Sensitivity of multi-angle photo-polarimetry to vertical layering and mixing of absorbing aerosols: Quantifying measurement uncertainties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.112, 2149–2163 (2011).

R. Kahn, D. Nelson, M. Garay, R. Levy, M. Bull, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, S. Paradise, E. Hansen, and L. Remer, “MISR aerosol product attributes and statistical comparisons with MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.47, 4095–4114 (2009).

R. Kahn, M. Garay, D. Nelson, K. Yau, M. Bull, B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, and R. Levy, “Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with aeronet and implications for climatological studies,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D18205 (2007).

G. Schaepman-Strub, M. Schaepman, T. Painter, S. Dangel, and J. Martonchik, “Reflectance quantities in optical remote sensing: definitions and case studies,” Remote Sens. Environ.103, 27–42 (2006).

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W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

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D. Diner, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, K. Crean, B. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, S. Pilorz, and B. Holben,” “MISR aerosol optical depth retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 3127–3130 (2001).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

J. Martonchik, R. Kahn, and D. Diner. “Retrieval of aerosol properties over land using MISR observations,” in Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing over Land (Springer, 2009), pp. 267–293.

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R. Levy, L. Remer, R. Kleidman, S. Mattoo, C. Ichoku, R. Kahn, and T. Eck, “Global evaluation of the collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.10, 10399–10420 (2010).

L. A. Remer, R. G. Kleidman, R. C. Levy, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, J. V. Martins, C. Ichoku, I. Koren, H. Yu, and B. Holben, “Global aerosol climatology from the MODIS satellite sensors,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D14S07 (2008).

L. Remer, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, S. Mattoo, D. Chu, J. Martins, R. Li, C. Ichoku, R. Levy, R. Kleidman, T. Eck, E. Vermote, and B. Holben, “The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 947–973 (2005).

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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton, “Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 7045–7067 (2011).

Menzel, W.

M. King, W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, B. Gao, S. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. Hubanks, “Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.41, 442–458 (2003).

Mishchenko, M.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).

P. Litvinov, O. Hasekamp, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko, “Reflection models for soil and vegetation surfaces from multiple-viewing angle photopolarimetric measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer111, 529–539 (2010).

S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

M. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. Lacis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111, 540–5522010.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res.114, D01206 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. Travis, “Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110, 402–408 (2009).

M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. Rossow, and L. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.106, 325–347 (2007).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, G. Kopp, C. Schueler, B. Fafaul, J. Hansen, R. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. Maring, and L. Travis, “Accurate monitoring of terrestrial aerosols and total solar irradiance: introducing the Glory mission,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.88, 687–691 (2007).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Using multi-angle multispectral photo-polarimetry of the NASA Glory mission to constrain optical properties of aerosols and clouds: results from four field experiments,” Proc. SPIE5978, 59780G (2005).

M. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. Hansen, L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Vanderlei Martins, and E. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.88, 149–161 (2004).

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the research scanning polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett.28, 243–246 (2001).

M. Mishchenko, L. Travis, and A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Muller, J.

C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

D. Diner, J. Beckert, T. Reilly, C. Bruegge, J. Conel, R. Kahn, J. Martonchik, T. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. Gerstl, H. Gordon, J. Muller, R. Myneni, P. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. Verstraete, “Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument description and experiment overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.36, 1072–1087 (1998).

Munk, W.

Myhre, G.

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W. Abdou, D. Diner, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, R. Kahn, B. Gaitley, K. Crean, L. Remer, and B. Holben, “Comparison of coincident multiangle imaging spectroradiometer and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing aerosol robotic network sites,” J. Geophys. Res.110, D10S07 (2005).

R. Levy, L. Remer, D. Tanré, Y. Kaufman, C. Ichoku, B. Holben, J. Livingston, P. Russell, and H. Maring, “Evaluation of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrievals of dust aerosol over the ocean during PRIDE,” J. Geophys. Res.108, D198594 (2003).

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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, P. Hobbs, G. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell, “Retrieval of aerosol scattering and absorption properties from photopolarimetric observations over the ocean during the clams experiment,” J. Atmos. Sci.62, 1093–1117 (2005).

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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, C. Schaaf, B. Schmid, and M. Román, “Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site,” J. Geophys. Res.113, D20105 (2008).

C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

W. Lucht, C. Schaaf, and A. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.38, 977–998 (2000).

C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, M. Roman, J. Salomon, and J. Hodges. “Assessment of albedo derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer at the Southern Great Plains site,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting (Alburquerque, NM, 2006).

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S. Persh, Y. Shaham, O. Benami, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, J. Hein, and B. Fafaul, “Ground performance measurements of the Glory aerosol polarimetry sensor,” Proc. SPIE7807, 780703 (2010).

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K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys.11, 6245–6263 (2011).

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C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

W. Lucht, C. Schaaf, and A. Strahler, “An algorithm for the retrieval of albedo from space using semiempirical BRDF models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.38, 977–998 (2000).

C. Schaaf, A. Strahler, M. Roman, J. Salomon, and J. Hodges. “Assessment of albedo derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer at the Southern Great Plains site,” in Proceedings of the Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting (Alburquerque, NM, 2006).

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C. Schaaf, F. Gao, A. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, and J. Muller, “First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS,” Remote Sens. Environ.83, 135–148 (2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Global AOT at 550nm for 2006 from the OsloCTM2 model. The histogram is shown in black, while the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) is in red and distribution quintiles in green. This histogram was used to select the appropriate simulation AOT, where the centroid of each quintile was used as the simulation AOT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The relationship between the Shannon Information Content (SIC) and error correlation parameter, ρ (see Eq. (9)) is shown for a simulation of an urban aerosol (τ(560nm) = 0.123) over water for various instrument view angle configurations. Solid lines indicate the SIC contained in the DoLP, while dashed lines are for RI. Overall, increases in ρ cause a decrease in the information content, except for extremely large correlations for RI. This relationship is strongest for RI, while the DoLP is much less sensitive to increased uncertainty correlation. This is because σDoLP is dominated by random noise, and means that instruments with large numbers of viewing angles can successfully increase the SIC even if the scene itself does not change dramatically with viewing angle. This is illustrated by the significant DoLP SIC differences for different viewing angle configurations when ρ is large, compared to much more modest differences for RI. In this simulation, spectral bands and uncertainties are identical to the APS instrument, as described in Table 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated uncertainties (components of Ŝ) for the APS for each aerosol climatology. The total simulated AOT values are the abscissae for each plot, while the ordinate axis is the simulated uncertainty. Shaded yellow areas indicate retrieval errors greater than the requirements in [5], while the a priori uncertainties for each parameter are in the lower right of each panel. The first row of plots contains the fine and coarse mode AOT and the (indirectly determined, as indicated by the *) total AOT and SSA. The second (third) row of plots are for the aerosol fine (coarse) size mode microphysical properties. The bottom row contains the surface parameter retrieval accuracies (Chlorophyll-a and wind speed) and the Shannon information content.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

This Fig. shows the sensitivity of the Shannon Information Content (SIC) to parameter variability among the simulated scenes. Many of the simulations share identical parameters (such as an individual aerosol type simulated at various AOTs), so the SIC value often has a large amount of scatter. This is less the case for the AOT, indicating that the AOT has a strong control on the information available in a scene. This means that in order for an assemblage of sensitivity studies to be globally representative, the selection of simulation AOT must be chosen with care, while other parameters are less important. Other parameters that are not shown here show a similar relationship, where microphysical aerosol optical parameters do not have a strong relationship with SIC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated retrieval uncertainty over the ocean for the instruments described in Table 3. The total simulated AOT values form the abscissae for each plot, while the ordinate axis is the simulated uncertainty. APS simulations are in black, PARASOL simulations in red, and MISR simulations in dashed blue. The axes range and other details of this Fig. are identical to Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated retrieval uncertainty over land for the instruments described in Table 3. With the exception of the SSA range and surface reflectance kernels, the axes and other details of this Fig. are identical to those in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In this Fig. we show the utility of various combinations of data for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land. Uncertainty for APS retrievals that use both total reflectance and the DoLP are plotted as black lines, total reflectance and polarized reflectance as blue dashed lines, and retrievals that use polarization alone (and therefore require the constraint of ten, rather than twenty, parameters) are plotted as dashed-dot black lines. PARASOL retrievals that use total reflectance and DoLP are plotted as red lines, total and polarized reflectance as dashed green lines, and polarized reflectance alone as red dashed-dot lines. While the axis ranges are different, all other parts of this Fig. are identical to Fig. 3.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Aerosol microphysical properties used in this study, based upon AERONET climatology [46]. All classes are composed of spherical, homogenous particles with a spectrally invariant refractive index. Size is specified bimodally with lognormal distributions. The fine size mode dominates scattering for each class, and contributes 90% of the total AOT at 560nm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 a priori error covariance matrix values

Tables Icon

Table 3 Simulation instrument configurations for MISR, PARASOL and APS. The value in parentheses is the total number of measurements by each instrument for a scene location.

Equations (10)

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S ^ 1 = K T S ε 1 K + S a 1 ,
K i j ( x ) = F i ( x ) x j F i ( x ) F i ( x ) x j x j ,
σ a = i = 1 n j = 1 n S ^ i , j a x i a x j .
H = 1 2 ln | S ^ 1 S a | ,
I = [ I , Q , U , V ] T ,
R I = I π r o 2 F o cos θ s , R Q = Q π r o 2 F o cos θ s , R U = U π r o 2 F o cos θ s ,
R p = R Q 2 + R U 2 ,
σ R I 2 = 2 σ f 2 ( π r o 2 F o cos ( θ s ) ) 2 + σ a R I π r o 2 F o cos θ s + σ b 2 R I 2 , σ R p 2 = 2 σ f 2 ( π r o 2 F o cos ( θ s ) ) 2 + σ a R I π r o 2 F o cos θ s + σ b 2 R p 2 + σ c 2 R p 2 , σ D o L P 2 = 2 σ f 2 ( 1 + D o L P 2 ) ( π r o 2 R I F o cos ( θ s ) ) 2 + σ a ( 1 D o L P 2 ) π r o 2 R I F o cos θ s + σ c 2 D o L P 2 .
S ε , i , j = σ i 2 for i = j , S ε , i , j = σ c , i σ c , j ρ | a ( i j ) | for i , j in the same channel and polarization state , S ε , i , j = 0 otherwise ,
σ R p 2 = 2 σ f 2 ( π r o 2 F o cos ( θ s ) ) 2 + σ a R I π r o 2 F o cos θ s + σ b 2 R p 2 + σ c 2 R I 2 , σ D o L P 2 = σ f 2 ( 1 + D o L P 2 ) ( 2 π r o 2 R I F o cos ( θ s ) ) 2 + σ a ( 1 D o L P 2 ) π r o 2 R I F o cos θ s + σ c 2 ,

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