Abstract

We fabricated the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with amorphous germanium (a-Ge) films consisted of the same materials at a center wavelength (λc) of 1.33 μm by the glancing angle deposition. Their optical reflectance properties were investigated in the infrared wavelength region of 1-1.9 μm at incident light angles (θinc) of 8-70°, together with the theoretical analysis using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation. The two alternating a-Ge films at the incident vapor flux angles of 0 and 75° were formed as the high and low refractive index materials, respectively. The a-Ge DBR with only 5 periods exhibited a normalized stop bandwidth (∆λ/λc) of ~24.1%, maintaining high reflectance (R) values of > 99%. Even at a high θinc of 70°, the ∆λ/λc was ~21.9%, maintaining R values of > 85%. The a-Ge DBR with good uniformity was obtained over the area of a 2 inch Si wafer. The calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency to the measured data.

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

2010 (1)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, “Obliquely deposited amorphous Ge films. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.35, 725–734 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. A.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blum, O.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet-Gamard, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boucart, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouché, N.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brillouet, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carpentier, D.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, K. L.

D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, “Obliquely deposited amorphous Ge films. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.35, 725–734 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, L. R.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Derouin, E.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, T. J.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eads, W.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erchak, A. A.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, I. J.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaborit, F.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, L.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, J. T.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Headley, T. J.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Howard, A. J.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwangbo, C. K.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, J.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Highly tolerant a-Si distributed Bragg reflector fabricated by oblique angle deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 451–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaminska, K.

Kao, C. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. P.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Highly tolerant a-Si distributed Bragg reflector fabricated by oblique angle deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 451–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leem, J. W.

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mankey, G. J.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Pai, Y. H.

Pandya, D. K.

D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, “Obliquely deposited amorphous Ge films. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.35, 725–734 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Plais, A.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Remy, J. C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, “Birefringent omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Opt.43(7), 1570–1576 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salet, P.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H. M.

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. C.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Highly tolerant a-Si distributed Bragg reflector fabricated by oblique angle deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express1(3), 451–457 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starck, C.

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Umlor, M. T.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weston, J.

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. L.

Xi, J. Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C. I.

Yu, C. C.

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Glancing angle deposited ITO films for efficiency enhancement of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S3Suppl 3), A258–A268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Blum, I. J. Fritz, L. R. Dawson, A. J. Howard, T. J. Headley, J. F. Klem, and T. J. Drummond, “Highly reflective, long wavelength AlAsSb/GaAsSb distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.66(3), 329–331 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(1), 013501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Boucart, C. Starck, F. Gaborit, A. Plais, N. Bouché, E. Derouin, J. C. Remy, J. Bonnet-Gamard, L. Goldstein, C. Fortin, D. Carpentier, P. Salet, F. Brillouet, and J. Jacquet, “Metamorphic DBR and tunnel-junction injection: A CW RT monolithic long-wavelength VCSEL,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(3), 520–529 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Liu, M. T. Umlor, L. Shen, J. Weston, W. Eads, J. A. Barnard, and G. J. Mankey, “The growth of nanoscale structured iron films by glancing angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 5486–5488 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, and T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res.23(9), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. C. Peng, C. C. Kao, H. W. Huang, J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Fabrication and characteristics of GaN-based microcavity light-emitting diodes with high reflectivity AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4B), 3446–3448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. J. Ripin, J. T. Gopinath, H. M. Shen, A. A. Erchak, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Oxidized GaAs/AlAs mirror with a quantum-well saturable absorber for ultrashort-pulse Cr4+:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.214(1-6), 285–289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. (1)

D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, “Obliquely deposited amorphous Ge films. I. Optical properties,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res.35, 725–734 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, H. J. Choi, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Structural and optical properties of silicon by tilted angle evaporation,” Surf. Coat. Tech.205, S447–S450 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

SOPRA, http://www.sopra-sa.com , Accessed 1 June (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of process steps for the fabrication of DBRs consisted of alternative high-n/low-n a-Ge film pairs on Si substrates using the GLAD technique via the e-beam evaporation at two different incident vapor flux angles of 0 and 75° and side-view SEM images of the fabricated a-Ge DBRs with 1, 3, and 5 periods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured and (b) calculated reflectance spectra of the a-Ge DBRs with 1-5 periods at a center wavelength of 1.33 μm. The inset of (a) shows the measured refractive index and extinction coefficient of the a-Ge films deposited by GLAD at θi = 0 and 75°. The 2D simulation model of the a-Ge DBR with 5 periods is illustrated in the inset of (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured relative reflectance mapping images of (a) the ‘KHU’-patterned a-Ge DBR on the Si substrate and (b) the a-Ge DBR on a 2 inch Si wafer for 5 periods at a wavelength of 1.33 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured reflectance spectra of the 5-period a-Ge DBR at incident angles of θinc = 8-70° for linearly polarized light and (b) contour plot of the variation of calculated reflectance spectra of the 5-period a-Ge DBR as a function of the incident angle of linearly polarized light.

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