Abstract

We propose the continuous wavelet transform for non-stationary vibration measurement by distributed vibration sensor based on phase optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR). The continuous wavelet transform approach can give simultaneously the frequency and time information of the vibration event. Frequency evolution is obtained by the wavelet ridge detection method from the scalogram of the continuous wavelet transform. In addition, a novel signal processing algorithm based on the global wavelet spectrum is used to determine the location of vibration. Distributed vibration measurements of 500Hz and 500Hz to 1kHz sweep events over 20 cm fiber length are demonstrated using a single mode fiber.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett.20(1), 30–32 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express16(26), 21616–21625 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

1992 (1)

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett.20(1), 30–32 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Addison, P.

P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Badour, F.

F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express16(26), 21616–21625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and X. Bao, “Distributed optical fiber vibration sensor based on spectrum analysis of Polarization-OTDR system,” Opt. Express16(14), 10240–10247 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X. Y.

Brady, K. R. C.

Cheded, L.

F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, and L. Chen, “Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing,” Opt. Express16(26), 21616–21625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. A.

Choi, K. N.

Dakin, J. P.

Guido, R.

P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healey, P.

P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett.20(1), 30–32 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Juarez, J. C.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Liu, D.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. L.

Maier, E. W.

Qin, Z.

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

Russell, S. J.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sunar, M.

F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

Udd, E.

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J.

P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, T.

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lu, T. Zhu, L. A. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensor based on coherent detection of phase-OTDR,” J. Lightwave Technol.28, 3243–3249 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Healey, “Fading in heterodyne OTDR,” Electron. Lett.20(1), 30–32 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

P. Addison, J. Walker, and R. Guido, “Time frequency analysis of biosignals,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.28(5), 14–29 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Qin, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Wavelet denoising method for improving detection performance of distributed vibration sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(7), 542–544 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Qin, T. Zhu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High sensitivity distributed vibration sensor based on polarization-maintaining configurations of phase-OTDR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1091–1093 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Mech. Syst. Signal Process. (1)

F. Al-Badour, M. Sunar, and L. Cheded, “Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time-frequency analysis and wavelet techniques,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process.25(6), 2083–2101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun.281(6), 1538–1544 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Udd, “Sagnac distributed sensors concepts,” Proc. SPIE1586, 46–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, Second Edition (Academic Press, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for coherent phase-sensitive OTDR, NLL: narrow linewidth laser; AOM: acoustic-optic modulator; EOM: electro-optic modulator; EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PC: polarization controller, Filter: optical fiber grating filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour plot of the global wavelet power spectrum along the fiber length for the stationary vibration detection of 500Hz (a) 200MHz low pass filter (b) 350MHz low pass filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Position profile of the 500Hz vibration event with 10ns pulse width using the 200MHz low pass filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scalogram of the 500Hz stationary vibration event at the vibration position (b) instantaneous frequency obtained by wavelet ridge detection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour plot of the global wavelet power spectrum along the fiber length for the non-stationary vibration detection of 500Hz-1000Hz sweep signal (a) 200MHz low pass filter (b) 350MHz low pass filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scalogram of the 500Hz-1000Hz sweep non-stationary vibration event at the vibration position (b) instantaneous frequency obtained by wavelet ridge detection.

Equations (5)

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W f (u,s)= f(t) 1 s ψ * ( tu s )dt
E(u,s)= | W f (u,s) | 2
f= f c s
d( | W f (u,s) | 2 /s) ds =0
E(s)= | W f (u,s) | 2 du

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