Abstract

The optical characteristics of silicon nanowires grown on Si layers on glass have been modeled using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) technique and compared with experimental results. The wires were grown by the VLS (vapour-liquid-solid) method using Sn catalyst layers and exhibit a conical shape. The resulting measured and modeled absorption, reflectance and transmittance spectra have been investigated as a function of the thickness of the underlying Si layer and the initial catalyst layer, the latter having a strong influence on wire density. High levels of absorption (>90% in the visible wavelength range) and good agreement between the modeling and experiment have been observed when the nanowires have a relatively high density of ~4 wires/µm2. The experimental and modeled results diverge for samples with a lower density of wire growth. The results are discussed along with some implications for solar cell fabrication.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core-shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowires arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (9)

B. K. Nayak, V. V. Iyengar, and M. C. Gupta, “Efficient light trapping in silicon solar cells by ultrafast-laser-induced self assembled micro/nano structures,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(6), 631–639 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Light absorption mechanism in single c-Si (core)/a-Si (shell) coaxial nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(12), 125705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (11)

A. Centeno, J. Breeze, B. Ahmed, H. S. Reehal, and N. Alford, “Scattering of light into silicon by spherical and hemispherical silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.35(1), 76–78 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bao and X. Ruan, “Optical absorption enhancement in disordered vertical silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3378–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Sol. Cell.93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires using tin catalyst for solar cells application,” Mater. Lett.63(9-10), 777–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis of silicon nanowires after hydrogen radical treatment,” Mater. Lett.62(23), 3903–3905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 16–24 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Dick, “A review of nanowire growth promoted by alloys and non-alloying elements with emphasis on Au –assisted iii-v nanowires,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.54(3-4), 138–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

V. A. Nebol’sin and A. A. Shchetinin, “Role of surface energy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon,” Inorg. Mater.39(9), 899–903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1966 (1)

W. M. Bullis, “Properties of gold in silicon,” Solid-State Electron.9(2), 143–168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M. M.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, B.

Alet, J. P.

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alford, N.

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anantram, M. P.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrä, G.

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argarwal, S.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Atwater, H. A.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, H.

Barber, G. D.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beach, J. D.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Breeze, J.

Briggs, R. M.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bullis, W. M.

W. M. Bullis, “Properties of gold in silicon,” Solid-State Electron.9(2), 143–168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Centeno, A.

Chen, C.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-H.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-J.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I. S.

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codella, P. J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. T.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Cui, Y.

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B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
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B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
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J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
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L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
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L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
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L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
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V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
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V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
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B. K. Nayak, V. V. Iyengar, and M. C. Gupta, “Efficient light trapping in silicon solar cells by ultrafast-laser-induced self assembled micro/nano structures,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(6), 631–639 (2011).
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Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
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Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
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L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
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D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
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B. K. Nayak, V. V. Iyengar, and M. C. Gupta, “Efficient light trapping in silicon solar cells by ultrafast-laser-induced self assembled micro/nano structures,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(6), 631–639 (2011).
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S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

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M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis of silicon nanowires after hydrogen radical treatment,” Mater. Lett.62(23), 3903–3905 (2008).
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Jia, G.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core-shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowires arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jia, R.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamisako, K.

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires using tin catalyst for solar cells application,” Mater. Lett.63(9-10), 777–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis of silicon nanowires after hydrogen radical treatment,” Mater. Lett.62(23), 3903–3905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
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S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
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Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 16–24 (2008).
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P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. R.

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, D.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leboeuf, S. F.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 16–24 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.-C.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Light absorption mechanism in single c-Si (core)/a-Si (shell) coaxial nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(12), 125705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lo, P. G.-Q.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Majewski, M. L.

Mallouk, T. E.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T. S.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nayak, B. K.

B. K. Nayak, V. V. Iyengar, and M. C. Gupta, “Efficient light trapping in silicon solar cells by ultrafast-laser-induced self assembled micro/nano structures,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(6), 631–639 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebol’sin, V. A.

V. A. Nebol’sin and A. A. Shchetinin, “Role of surface energy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon,” Inorg. Mater.39(9), 899–903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, B.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. I.

W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Light absorption mechanism in single c-Si (core)/a-Si (shell) coaxial nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(12), 125705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ose, E.

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patriache, G.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Z.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pietrzykowski, M.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, M.

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podraza, N. J.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. C.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, P. M.

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapol, U.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rathi, S.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Redwing, J. M.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reehal, H. S.

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, X.

Schmidt, V.

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensfuss, S.

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchetinin, A. A.

V. A. Nebol’sin and A. A. Shchetinin, “Role of surface energy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon,” Inorg. Mater.39(9), 899–903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. Z.

W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Light absorption mechanism in single c-Si (core)/a-Si (shell) coaxial nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(12), 125705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.-Y.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sill, I.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core-shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowires arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Singh, P. K.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sivakov, V.

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S. K.

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steglich, M.

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core-shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowires arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stelzner, Th.

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stradins, P.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, P. C.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Thiyagu, S.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 16–24 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, B. D.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. S.

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. F.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weng, X.

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Wittemann, J. V.

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wronski, C. R.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Z.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.-M.

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, P. Y.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuwen, Y. A.

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, and T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, R. Jia, C. Chen, Z. Xing, W. Ding, Y. Meng, D. Wu, X. Liu, and T. Ye, “Influence of nanowires length on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, G. Patriache, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Stability and evolution of low surface-tension metal catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 123113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schmidt, J. V. Wittemann, and U. Gösele, “Growth, thermodynamics, and electrical properties of silicon nanowires,” Chem. Rev.110(1), 361–388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(1), 16–24 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Meep: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun.181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

M. C. Putnam, S. W. Boettcher, M. D. Kelzenberg, B. D. Turner-Evans, J. M. Spurgeon, E. L. Warren, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Si microwire-array solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci.3(8), 1037–1041 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

V. A. Nebol’sin and A. A. Shchetinin, “Role of surface energy in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon,” Inorg. Mater.39(9), 899–903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M.-Y. Shih, S. F. Leboeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophoton.1(1), 013552–013562 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Rathi, B. N. Jariwala, J. D. Beach, P. Stradins, P. C. Taylor, X. Weng, Y. Ke, J. M. Redwing, S. Argarwal, and R. T. Collins, “Tin catalyzed plasma-assisted growth of silicon nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem.115, 3833–3839 (2011).

Mater. Lett. (2)

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis of silicon nanowires after hydrogen radical treatment,” Mater. Lett.62(23), 3903–3905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeon and K. Kamisako, “Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowires using tin catalyst for solar cells application,” Mater. Lett.63(9-10), 777–779 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

D. R. Kim, C. H. Lee, P. M. Rao, I. S. Cho, and X. Zheng, “Hybrid Si microwire and planar solar cells: passivation and characterization,” Nano Lett.11(7), 2704–2708 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett.10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett.7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (4)

W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Light absorption mechanism in single c-Si (core)/a-Si (shell) coaxial nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(12), 125705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Eisenhawer, S. Sensfuss, V. Sivakov, M. Pietsch, G. Andrä, and F. Falk, “Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology22(31), 315401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (1)

K. A. Dick, “A review of nanowire growth promoted by alloys and non-alloying elements with emphasis on Au –assisted iii-v nanowires,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.54(3-4), 138–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

B. K. Nayak, V. V. Iyengar, and M. C. Gupta, “Efficient light trapping in silicon solar cells by ultrafast-laser-induced self assembled micro/nano structures,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.19(6), 631–639 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

D. Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, P. K. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(1), 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Jia, M. Steglich, I. Sill, and F. Falk, “Core-shell heterojunction solar cells on silicon nanowires arrays,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 226–230 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pei, S. Thiyagu, M.-S. Jhong, W.-S. Hsieh, S.-J. Cheng, M.-W. Ho, Y.-H. Chen, J.-C. Liu, and C.-M. Yeh, “An amorphous silicon random nanocone/polymer hybrid solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2431–2436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, J. P. Alet, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “All-in-situ fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires on TCO/glass substrates for photovoltaic application,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(11), 1855–1859 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Sol. Cell. (1)

O. Gunawan and S. Guha, “Characteristics of vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowire solar cells,” Sol. Energy Sol. Cell.93(8), 1388–1393 (2009).
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W. M. Bullis, “Properties of gold in silicon,” Solid-State Electron.9(2), 143–168 (1966).
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Other (1)

Z. Zhong, C. Yang, and C. M. Lieber, “Silicon nanowires and nanowire heterostructures,” in Nanosilicon, V. Kumar, ed. (Elsevier 2007), pp.176–216.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram showing the polarization of incident electric field and the position of the computational surfaces in relation to the Si substrate and nanowire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simplified sample fabrication process (b) Growth on a 3nm thick Sn layer, scale bar 2µm. (c) Bright field TEM micrograph, scale bar 50nm. (d) Phase contrast TEM micrograph, scale bar 5nm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of experimental and modeled optical spectra of SiNWs grown from varying Sn catalyst layer thicknesses on glass coated with 0.8 µm of Si (a) absorption (b) transmission (c) reflection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of absorption spectra from SiNWs grown from 6nm Sn on Si layer of 0.013, 0.12 and 0.8µm thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of SiNW grown from 3nm Sn on Si layers of 0.013 and 0.12µm thickness (b) Comparison of modeled SiNW from 3nm Sn on Si layers of 0.013µm with measured and modeled with no Si layer.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thin Film Si Sputter Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 ECR Processes Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 SiNW Parameters for Growth on 0.8µm Thick Si Layers on Glass

Equations (1)

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ε(ω)= ε + j=1 5 f j ω p 2 ω oj 2 ω 2 i Γ j ω

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