Abstract

Segment-edges for extremely large telescopes are critical for observations requiring high contrast and SNR, e.g. detecting exo-planets. In parallel, industrial requirements for edge-control are emerging in several applications. This paper reports on a new approach, where edges are controlled throughout polishing of the entire surface of a part, which has been pre-machined to its final external dimensions. The method deploys compliant bonnets delivering influence functions of variable diameter, complemented by small pitch tools sized to accommodate aspheric mis-fit. We describe results on witness hexagons in preparation for full size prototype segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, and comment on wider applications of the technology.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. P. Wehinger, “Steward Observatory Mirror Lab,” (accessed March. 2012) http://mirrorlab.as.arizona.edu/ .
  2. J. Nelson and T. S. Mast, “Construction of the Keck Observatory,” Proc. SPIE1236, 47–55 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lubliner and J. E. Nelson, “Stressed Mirror Polishing. 1: A technique for producing nonaxisymmetric mirrors,” Appl. Opt.19(14), 2332–2340 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. E. Nelson and G. M. Smith, “W. M. Keck Observatory,” Bull. Astron. Soc.22, 310 (1990).
  7. J. W. Pepi, “Test and theoretical comparisons for bending and springing of the Keck segmented 10 m telescope,” Opt. Eng.29(11), 1366–1372 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger127, 11–19 (2007).
  9. L. Christensen, “ESO moves one step closer to the first Extremely Large Telescope,” (accessed Sept. 2011) http://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann11034/ .
  10. E. Swat, “ESO prototype segment specification,” E-SPE-ESO-300–0150 Issue 4, 29th July, (2009).
  11. X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Dunn and D. D. Walker, “Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications,” Opt. Express16(23), 18942–18949 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. W. Kim, W. H. Park, S. W. Kim, and J. H. Burge, “Parametric modeling of edge effects for polishing tool influence functions,” Opt. Express17(7), 5656–5665 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol.11, 214–256 (1927).
  17. G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express11(8), 958–964 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).
  21. D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).
  22. H. Jing, C. King, and D. D. Walker, “Measurement of influence function using swing arm profilometer and laser tracker,” Opt. Express18(5), 5271–5281 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

2010 (2)

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jing, C. King, and D. D. Walker, “Measurement of influence function using swing arm profilometer and laser tracker,” Opt. Express18(5), 5271–5281 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

C. R. Dunn and D. D. Walker, “Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications,” Opt. Express16(23), 18942–18949 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger127, 11–19 (2007).

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

J. E. Nelson and G. M. Smith, “W. M. Keck Observatory,” Bull. Astron. Soc.22, 310 (1990).

J. W. Pepi, “Test and theoretical comparisons for bending and springing of the Keck segmented 10 m telescope,” Opt. Eng.29(11), 1366–1372 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and T. S. Mast, “Construction of the Keck Observatory,” Proc. SPIE1236, 47–55 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1927 (1)

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol.11, 214–256 (1927).

Alvarez, P.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, A.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beaucamp, A.

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

Brooks, D.

Burge, J. H.

D. W. Kim, W. H. Park, S. W. Kim, and J. H. Burge, “Parametric modeling of edge effects for polishing tool influence functions,” Opt. Express17(7), 5656–5665 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Comley, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cuerden, B.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, C.

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

Dunn, C. R.

Evans, R.

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R.

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express11(8), 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger127, 11–19 (2007).

Jing, H.

Kim, D. W.

Kim, S. W.

King, A.

King, C.

Kingsley, J. S.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kittrell, W. C.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lubliner, J.

Lutz, R. D.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T. S.

J. Nelson and T. S. Mast, “Construction of the Keck Observatory,” Proc. SPIE1236, 47–55 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCavana, G.

Miller, S. M.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morantz, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morton, R.

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express11(8), 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson and T. S. Mast, “Construction of the Keck Observatory,” Proc. SPIE1236, 47–55 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. E.

Park, W. H.

Pepi, J. W.

J. W. Pepi, “Test and theoretical comparisons for bending and springing of the Keck segmented 10 m telescope,” Opt. Eng.29(11), 1366–1372 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Preston, F. W.

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol.11, 214–256 (1927).

Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, F.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shore, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. M.

J. E. Nelson and G. M. Smith, “W. M. Keck Observatory,” Bull. Astron. Soc.22, 310 (1990).

Song, C.

C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger127, 11–19 (2007).

Tonnellier, X.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. D.

C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

H. Jing, C. King, and D. D. Walker, “Measurement of influence function using swing arm profilometer and laser tracker,” Opt. Express18(5), 5271–5281 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

C. R. Dunn and D. D. Walker, “Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications,” Opt. Express16(23), 18942–18949 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Walker, D. Brooks, A. King, R. Freeman, R. Morton, G. McCavana, and S. W. Kim, “The ‘Precessions’ tooling for polishing and figuring flat, spherical and aspheric surfaces,” Opt. Express11(8), 958–964 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, X.

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

Yu, G.

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zobrist, T.

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. E. Nelson and G. M. Smith, “W. M. Keck Observatory,” Bull. Astron. Soc.22, 310 (1990).

CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology (1)

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Annals, Manufacturing Technology60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub. (2)

G. Yu, H. Li, and D. D. Walker, “Removal of mid spatial-frequency features in mirror segments,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11044 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, G. Yu, D. D. Walker, and R. Evans, “Modeling and measurement of polishing tool influence functions for edge control,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Pub.6, 11048 (2011).

J. Soc. Glass Technol. (1)

F. W. Preston, “The theory and design of plate glass polishing machines,” J. Soc. Glass Technol.11, 214–256 (1927).

New Astron. Rev. (1)

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodríguez Espinosa, and F. Sánchez, “The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) project,” New Astron. Rev.42(6-8), 553–556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

C. Song, D. D. Walker, and G. Yu, “Misfit of rigid tools and interferometer sub-apertures on off-axis aspheric mirror segments,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 073401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pepi, “Test and theoretical comparisons for bending and springing of the Keck segmented 10 m telescope,” Opt. Eng.29(11), 1366–1372 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (5)

H. M. Martin, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, W. B. Davison, J. S. Kingsley, W. C. Kittrell, R. D. Lutz, S. M. Miller, C. Zhao, and T. Zobrist, “Progress in manufacturing the first 8.4 m off-axis segment for the Giant Magellan Telescope,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180C (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Shore, P. Morantz, A. Baldwin, D. Walker, G. Yu, and R. Evans, “Sub surface damage issues for effective fabrication of large optics,” Proc. SPIE7018, 70180F, 70180F-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Tonnellier, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and P. Comley, “Precision grinding for rapid fabrication of segments for extremely large telescopes using the Cranfield BoX,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773905, 773905-8 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson and T. S. Mast, “Construction of the Keck Observatory,” Proc. SPIE1236, 47–55 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Walker, A. Beaucamp, C. Dunn, R. Evans, R. Freeman, R. Morton, X. Wei, and G. Yu, “Edge-control and surface-smoothness in sub-aperture polishing of mirror segments,” Proc. SPIE7018, 67–76 (2008).

The Messenger (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” The Messenger127, 11–19 (2007).

Other (3)

L. Christensen, “ESO moves one step closer to the first Extremely Large Telescope,” (accessed Sept. 2011) http://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann11034/ .

E. Swat, “ESO prototype segment specification,” E-SPE-ESO-300–0150 Issue 4, 29th July, (2009).

P. Wehinger, “Steward Observatory Mirror Lab,” (accessed March. 2012) http://mirrorlab.as.arizona.edu/ .

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Analysis of interferometry data for edge mis-figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An example of a pitch tool (left) and a brass grolishing tool (right) mounted on a bonnet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A rigid tool overhanging a segment corner and edge (right), along its tool-path trajectory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The polishing efficiency at the precise edge for different edge-overhang due to incomplete tool path.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profiles of pressure distribution at corner for different edge-overhangs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pressure distribution in the contact area between tool and work- piece for an overhang of 35mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Form Talysurf profilometry of edge and corned profiles, related to tool overhangs. The set of three plots corresponds to the three edge scans across corners or flat.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polishing spot encountering an edge with tool-lift enabled.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Preliminary modeling and experimental results of tool lift.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fringes and phase map from turned-up edges after pre-polishing with R160 bonnet and 60mm spot. The surface figure of the entire surface including edge-zone, but excluding the 0.5mm allowance for the bevel is 1084nm RMS.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fringes and phase map after correction with R80 bonnet and 20mm spot. The surface figure of the entire surface including edge-zone, but excluding the 0.5mm allowance for the bevel is 67nm RMS.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fringes (left), phase map (centre), and PVq (95%) edges (right), after rectification with a pitch tool.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Final results on the 400mm across corners part: fringes (left), phase map (center) and PVq (95%) edges (right).

Equations (4)

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S edge = A 1 A = 1 2π ( π 2 arcos(Rd) R 1 )sin(2arcos(Rd) R 1 ))
S corner =0                                           0d(1 3 /2)
S corner = 1 2π (2arsin 3 2 R 1 ( 2Rd d 2 1 2 (Rd))sin(2arsin 3 2 R 1 ( 2Rd d 2 1 2 (Rd))+ 3 4 ( 2Rd d 2 1 2 (Rd)) 2 (1 3 /2)RdR
S corner = 1 2π ( 5π 6 arcos(dR) R 1 sin( 5π 6 arcos(dR) R 1 )) +( 3 4 ( 3 3 (dR)+ R 2 (dR) 2 ) 2 (π R 2 ) 1 Rd2R

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