Abstract

We are first to demonstrate a broadband, nanometer-scale, and background-free light source that is based on photoluminescence of a single nanohole in an Au film. We show that a nanohole with a diameter of as small as 20 nm in a 200-nm thick Au film can be used for this purpose. Further development of the localized source that involves the use of a photon-crystal microcavity with a Q-factor of 100 makes it possible to create a 30-fold enhanced, narrowband tunable light source and with a narrow directivity of the radiation.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (1)

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

X. Ni, S. Ishii, M. D. Thoreson, V. M. Shalaev, S. Han, S. Lee, and A. V. Kildishev, “Loss-compensated and active hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(25), 25242–25254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, and M. Orrit, “Correlated absorption and photoluminescence of single gold nanoparticles,” ChemPhysChem12(8), 1536–1541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, A. A. Kuzin, A. V. Zablotskiy, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Single nanohole and photonic crystal: wavelength selective enhanced transmission of light,” Opt. Express19(23), 22743–22754 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 209–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, “Near-field imaging with a localized nonlinear light source,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3801–3804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys.79(4), 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Dowling, M. Scully, and F. DeMartini, “Radiation-pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity,” Opt. Commun.82(5-6), 415–419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. Lässer, N. V. Smith, and R. L. Benbow, “Empirical band calculations of the optical properties of d-band metals.I. Cu, Ag, and Au,” Phys. Rev. B24(4), 1895–1909 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adamo, G.

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afanasiev, A. E.

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashby, P.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, J. M.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balykin, V. I.

P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, A. A. Kuzin, A. V. Zablotskiy, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Single nanohole and photonic crystal: wavelength selective enhanced transmission of light,” Opt. Express19(23), 22743–22754 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baturin, A. S.

P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, A. A. Kuzin, A. V. Zablotskiy, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Single nanohole and photonic crystal: wavelength selective enhanced transmission of light,” Opt. Express19(23), 22743–22754 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benbow, R. L.

R. Lässer, N. V. Smith, and R. L. Benbow, “Empirical band calculations of the optical properties of d-band metals.I. Cu, Ag, and Au,” Phys. Rev. B24(4), 1895–1909 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Berweger, S.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bratschitsch, R.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burda, C.

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butterfield, F. L.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caruso, F.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, J.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, V. W.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornaglia, M.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J.

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMartini, F.

J. Dowling, M. Scully, and F. DeMartini, “Radiation-pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity,” Opt. Commun.82(5-6), 415–419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J.

J. Dowling, M. Scully, and F. DeMartini, “Radiation-pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity,” Opt. Commun.82(5-6), 415–419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, R. A.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Cuesta, I.

Fourkas, J. T.

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaiduk, A.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, and M. Orrit, “Correlated absorption and photoluminescence of single gold nanoparticles,” ChemPhysChem12(8), 1536–1541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys.79(4), 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 209–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gittins, D. I.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, T.

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenester, U.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, S.

Ismach, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klar, T. A.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klukowska, A.

Knittel, V.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

Kuzin, A. A.

Lapshin, D. A.

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lässer, R.

R. Lässer, N. V. Smith, and R. L. Benbow, “Empirical band calculations of the optical properties of d-band metals.I. Cu, Ag, and Au,” Phys. Rev. B24(4), 1895–1909 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Leitenstorfer, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayya, K. S.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melentiev, P. N.

P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, A. A. Kuzin, A. V. Zablotskiy, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Single nanohole and photonic crystal: wavelength selective enhanced transmission of light,” Opt. Express19(23), 22743–22754 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohamed, M. B.

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

Niedereichholz, T.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, R. B.

Nikoobakht, B.

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, “Near-field imaging with a localized nonlinear light source,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3801–3804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogletree, D. F.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olmon, R. L.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, and M. Orrit, “Correlated absorption and photoluminescence of single gold nanoparticles,” ChemPhysChem12(8), 1536–1541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palomba, S.

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, “Near-field imaging with a localized nonlinear light source,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3801–3804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmeron, M. B.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartzberg, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M.

J. Dowling, M. Scully, and F. DeMartini, “Radiation-pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity,” Opt. Commun.82(5-6), 415–419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheshin, E. P.

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. V.

R. Lässer, N. V. Smith, and R. L. Benbow, “Empirical band calculations of the optical properties of d-band metals.I. Cu, Ag, and Au,” Phys. Rev. B24(4), 1895–1909 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thoreson, M. D.

Trügler, A.

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urban, J. J.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varnavski, O. P.

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V.

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

von Plessen, G.

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-M.

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. G.

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yorulmaz, M.

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, and M. Orrit, “Correlated absorption and photoluminescence of single gold nanoparticles,” ChemPhysChem12(8), 1536–1541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. H.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zablotskiy, A. V.

P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, A. A. Kuzin, A. V. Zablotskiy, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Single nanohole and photonic crystal: wavelength selective enhanced transmission of light,” Opt. Express19(23), 22743–22754 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. B. Mohamed, V. Volkov, S. Link, and M. A. El-Sayed, “The 'lightning' gold nanorods: fluorescence enhancement of over a million compared to the gold metal,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(6), 517–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “How long does it take to melt a gold nanorod?” Chem. Phys. Lett.315(1-2), 12–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

A. Gaiduk, M. Yorulmaz, and M. Orrit, “Correlated absorption and photoluminescence of single gold nanoparticles,” ChemPhysChem12(8), 1536–1541 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (6)

R. A. Farrer, F. L. Butterfield, V. W. Chen, and J. T. Fourkas, “Highly efficient multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence from gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(6), 1139–1142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, “Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2784–2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Palomba and L. Novotny, “Near-field imaging with a localized nonlinear light source,” Nano Lett.9(11), 3801–3804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber-Bargioni, A. Schwartzberg, M. Cornaglia, A. Ismach, J. J. Urban, Y. Pang, R. Gordon, J. Bokor, M. B. Salmeron, D. F. Ogletree, P. Ashby, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Hyperspectral nanoscale imaging on dielectric substrates with coaxial optical antenna scan probes,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1201–1207 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berweger, J. M. Atkin, X. G. Xu, R. L. Olmon, and M. B. Raschke, “Femtosecond nanofocusing with full optical waveform control,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4309–4313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12(2), 992–996 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

P. N. Melentiev, A. V. Zablotskiy, D. A. Lapshin, E. P. Sheshin, A. S. Baturin, and V. I. Balykin, “Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera,” Nanotechnology20(23), 235301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Dowling, M. Scully, and F. DeMartini, “Radiation-pattern of a classical dipole in a cavity,” Opt. Commun.82(5-6), 415–419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

O. P. Varnavski, T. Goodson, M. B. Mohamed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Femtosecond excitation dynamics in gold nanospheres and nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B72(23), 235405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Lässer, N. V. Smith, and R. L. Benbow, “Empirical band calculations of the optical properties of d-band metals.I. Cu, Ag, and Au,” Phys. Rev. B24(4), 1895–1909 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, T. Niedereichholz, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, D. I. Gittins, K. S. Mayya, and F. Caruso, “Plasmon emission in photoexcited gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B70(20), 205424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, “Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter33(12), 7923–7936 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mooradian, “Photoluminescence of metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.22(5), 185–187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Adamo, K. F. MacDonald, Y. H. Fu, C.-M. Wang, D. P. Tsai, F. J. de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Light well: a tunable free-electron light source on a chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(11), 113901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(1), 209–275 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys.79(4), 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 1999).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer Verlag, 1995).

T.V. Konstantinova, P. N. Melentiev, A. E. Afanasiev, V. I. Balykin, A. A. Kuzin, P. A. Starikov, A. S. Baturin, A. A. Tauseynov, and A.V. Konyaschenko are preparing a manuscript to be called “Single nano-hole as an effective nonlinear element for third harmonic generation”.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge University Press: Cambrodge 2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic band structure of Au at the high-symmetry point L in Au close to the Fermi surface [3] showing the electron excitation and photoemission; (b) sketch of an experimental scheme for the photoluminescence excitation in gold in a close vicinity of the nanohole and for the collection of the photoluminescence radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical image of a nanohole excited by laser light: (a) nanohole is located 3 µm away from the center of the laser light spot (the arrow shows the location of the nanohole); (b) nanohole is located 2 µm away from the center of the laser light spot; and (c) the laser beam spot is superimposed directly on the nanohole.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoluminescence spectra from a 100-nm thick bare Au film (black) and from two holes of 65 (blue) nm and 560 nm (red) in diameter created in the same film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of photoluminescence images of a hole with a diameter of 60 nm created in Au films of different thicknesses: 50 nm (red), 100 nm (green), and 200 nm (blue). The insert shows the electron image of the nanohole.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sketch of an experimental scheme for the photoluminescence excitation in single nanohole in a gold film, comprising the last layer of photonic crystal microcavity, (b) schematic spectra of excited laser light (blue), photoluminescence of nanohole in Au film without microcavity (red), radiation from single nanohole imbedded in microcavity (green).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photoluminescence spectrum (black) of a 60-nm nanohole in a 200-nm thick Au film without a PCM and calculated transmission spectrum (blue) for the nanohole incorporated into the PCM; (b) the measured photoluminescence spectrum of the nanohole incorporated into the PCM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

2D optical images of a 60-nm nanohole measured at the PCM resonance frequency: (a) nanohole in a 200-nm thick Au film, (b) nanohole incorporated into the PCM.

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