Abstract

We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer for the attainment of optimum output coupling in a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The cw OPO, configured as a singly-resonant oscillator (SRO), is based on a 50-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal and pumped by cw Ytterbium-fiber laser at 1064 nm, with the ARR interferometer integrated into one arm of the standing-wave cavity. By fine adjustment of the ARR transmission, a continuously variable signal output coupling from 0.8% to 7.3% has been achieved, providing optimum output coupling for signal and optimum power extraction for the idler, at different input pumping levels. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations for conventional output-coupled cw SRO, and the study shows that by reducing the insertion loss of the ARR elements, the performance of the ARR-coupled cw SRO can be further enhanced. We also show that the use of the ARR does not lead to any degradation in the cw SRO output beam quality. The proof-of-principle demonstration confirms the effectiveness of the technique for continuous, in situ, and fine control of output coupling in cw OPOs to achieve maximum output power at any arbitrary pumping level above threshold.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” in Handbook of Optics (OSA, vol IV, 2010), Chap. 17.
  2. S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.18(12), 971–973 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 713–715 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Gross, M. E. Klein, T. Walde, K.-J. Boller, M. Auerbach, P. Wessels, and C. Fallnich, “Fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 418–420 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. D. Lindsay, B. Adhimoolam, P. Groß, M. E. Klein, and K. J. Boller, “110GHz rapid, continuous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser,” Opt. Express13(4), 1234–1239 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Low threshold, singly-resonant cw OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source,” Opt. Express14(2), 767–772 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. K. Samanta and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave, single-frequency, solid-state blue source for the 425-489 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1228–1230 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, R. Das, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser green source at 532 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2255–2257 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Chaitanya Kumar, R. Das, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimally-output-coupled, 17.5 W, fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 31–35 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. K. Samanta and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with resonant wave coupling,” Opt. Express16(10), 6883–6888 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. O. Moore, G. Biondini, and W. L. Kath, “Self-induced thermal effects and modal competition in continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B19(4), 802–811 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Esteban-Martin, O. Kokabee, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimum output coupling in optical oscillators using an antiresonant ring interferometer,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2786–2788 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1068–1070 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. E. Bjorkholm, “Some effects of spatially nonuniform pumping in pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.7(3), 109–118 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. E. Siegman, “An antiresonant ring interferometer for coupled laser cavities, laser output coupling, mode locking, and cavity dumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.9(2), 247–250 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Trutna and A. E. Siegman, “Laser cavity dumping using an antiresonant ring,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.13(12), 955–962 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Vanherzeele, J. L. Van Eck, and A. E. Siegman, “Colliding pulse mode locking of a Nd:YAG laser with an antiresonant ring structure,” Appl. Opt.20(20), 3484–3486 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. E. Seigman, “Laser beams and resonators: Beyond the 1960s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1389–1399 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Chaitanya Kumar, R. Das, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimally-output-coupled, 17.5 W, fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 31–35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1068–1070 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, R. Das, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser green source at 532 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2255–2257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Low threshold, singly-resonant cw OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source,” Opt. Express14(2), 767–772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

A. E. Seigman, “Laser beams and resonators: Beyond the 1960s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1389–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

R. Trutna and A. E. Siegman, “Laser cavity dumping using an antiresonant ring,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.13(12), 955–962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “An antiresonant ring interferometer for coupled laser cavities, laser output coupling, mode locking, and cavity dumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.9(2), 247–250 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Some effects of spatially nonuniform pumping in pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.7(3), 109–118 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Adhimoolam, B.

Alexander, J. I.

Auerbach, M.

Biondini, G.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Some effects of spatially nonuniform pumping in pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.7(3), 109–118 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

Boller, K.-J.

Bosenberg, W. R.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 713–715 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, R. Das, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimally-output-coupled, 17.5 W, fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 31–35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1068–1070 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, R.

S. Chaitanya Kumar, R. Das, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimally-output-coupled, 17.5 W, fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 31–35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, R. Das, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser green source at 532 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2255–2257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drobshoff, A.

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Eckardt, R. C.

Esteban-Martin, A.

Falk, J.

S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Groß, P.

Gross, P.

Guha, S.

S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Halonen, L.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A.

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Low threshold, singly-resonant cw OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source,” Opt. Express14(2), 767–772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kath, W. L.

Klein, M. E.

Kokabee, O.

Kumar, S. C.

Lindsay, I. D.

Moore, R. O.

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 713–715 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peltola, J.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samanta, G. K.

Seigman, A. E.

A. E. Seigman, “Laser beams and resonators: Beyond the 1960s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1389–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

H. Vanherzeele, J. L. Van Eck, and A. E. Siegman, “Colliding pulse mode locking of a Nd:YAG laser with an antiresonant ring structure,” Appl. Opt.20(20), 3484–3486 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trutna and A. E. Siegman, “Laser cavity dumping using an antiresonant ring,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.13(12), 955–962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “An antiresonant ring interferometer for coupled laser cavities, laser output coupling, mode locking, and cavity dumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.9(2), 247–250 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R.

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Low threshold, singly-resonant cw OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source,” Opt. Express14(2), 767–772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trutna, R.

R. Trutna and A. E. Siegman, “Laser cavity dumping using an antiresonant ring,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.13(12), 955–962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vainio, M.

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Eck, J. L.

Vanherzeele, H.

Walde, T.

Wessels, P.

Wu, F.-J.

S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. Chaitanya Kumar, R. Das, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimally-output-coupled, 17.5 W, fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 31–35 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Henderson and R. Stafford, “Intra-cavity power effects in singly resonant cw OPOs,” Appl. Phys. B85(2-3), 181–184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Vainio, J. Peltola, S. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and L. Halonen, “Thermal effects in singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B94(3), 411–427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

J. E. Bjorkholm, “Some effects of spatially nonuniform pumping in pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.7(3), 109–118 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. Guha, F.-J. Wu, and J. Falk, “The effects of focusing on parametric oscillation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(5), 907–912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Myers and W. R. Bosenberg, “Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(10), 1663–1672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, “An antiresonant ring interferometer for coupled laser cavities, laser output coupling, mode locking, and cavity dumping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.9(2), 247–250 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Trutna and A. E. Siegman, “Laser cavity dumping using an antiresonant ring,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.13(12), 955–962 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Seigman, “Laser beams and resonators: Beyond the 1960s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1389–1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

G. K. Samanta and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave, single-frequency, solid-state blue source for the 425-489 nm spectral range,” Opt. Lett.33(11), 1228–1230 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Samanta, S. C. Kumar, R. Das, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser green source at 532 nm,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2255–2257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Esteban-Martin, O. Kokabee, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Optimum output coupling in optical oscillators using an antiresonant ring interferometer,” Opt. Lett.35(16), 2786–2788 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chaitanya Kumar, A. Esteban-Martin, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1068–1070 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, R. C. Eckardt, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a single-frequency resonantly doubled Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.18(12), 971–973 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Bosenberg, A. Drobshoff, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. L. Byer, “Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled LiNbO3.,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 713–715 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gross, M. E. Klein, T. Walde, K.-J. Boller, M. Auerbach, P. Wessels, and C. Fallnich, “Fiber-laser-pumped continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.27(6), 418–420 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators,” in Handbook of Optics (OSA, vol IV, 2010), Chap. 17.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. FI: Faraday isolator, HWP: Half-wave plate, PBS: Polarizing beam-splitter, L: Lens, M1-M5: Mirrors, M: Dichroic mirror, BS: Beam-splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Variation of signal and idler power along with the total power extracted from the OPO using conventional 5% OC as a function of input pump power, and (b) Transmission from ARR interferometer as a function of BS angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimization of signal power versus BS angle, θBS, at input pump power of (a) 15.9 W, and (b) 23.2 W. Optimization of simultaneously extracted single-pass idler power versus BS angle, θBS, at input pump power of (c) 15.9 W, and (d) 23.2 W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretically calculated optimization curves for signal and idler power as a function of output coupling at input pump power of (a) 15.9 W, and (b) 23.2 W.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretically calculated optimization curves for signal power as a function of output coupling at low pump power of 5 W and high pump power of 28.6 W.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Pump depletion as a function of BS angle, θBS, at input pump power of 23.2 W. (b) Signal and corresponding idler along with total output power scaling at BS angle, θBS = 33°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Signal power scaling at optimum signal output coupling values. (b) Idler power scaling at minimum signal output coupling values. Inset: Corresponding theoretical plots.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The cw SRO threshold power as a function of signal output coupling with the ARR. Inset: far-field energy distribution of extracted signal with optimum ARR-OC value of 4.6% at 23.2 W of input pump power.

Metrics