Abstract

A Near Infrared Spectral Tomography (NIRST) system has been developed and integrated into a commercial Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner to allow structural and functional imaging of breast in vivo. The NIRST instrument uses an 8-wavelength continuous wave (CW) laser-based scanning source assembly and a 75-element silicon photodiode solid-state detector panel to produce dense spectral and spatial projection data from which spectrally constrained 3D tomographic images of tissue chromophores are produced. Integration of the optical imaging system into the DBT scanner allows direct co-registration of the optical and DBT images, while also facilitating the synergistic use of x-ray contrast as anatomical priors in optical image reconstruction. Currently, the total scan time for a combined NIRST-DBT exam is ~50s with data collection from 8 wavelengths in the optical scan requiring ~42s to complete. The system was tested in breast simulating phantoms constructed using intralipid and blood in an agarose matrix with a 3 cm x 2 cm cylindrical inclusion at 1 cm depth from the surface. Diffuse image reconstruction of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration resulted in accurate recovery of the lateral size and position of the inclusion to within 6% and 8%, respectively. Use of DBT structural priors in the NIRST reconstruction process improved the quantitative accuracy of the HbT recovery, and led to linear changes in imaged versus actual contrast, underscoring the advantages of dual-modality optical imaging approaches. The quantitative accuracy of the system can be further improved with independent measurements of scattering properties through integration of frequency or time domain data.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

S. S. Feng and I. Sechopoulos, “Clinical digital breast tomosynthesis system: dosimetric characterization,” Radiology263(1), 35–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ren, A. Smith, and Z. Jing, “Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis,” Proc. SPIE8313, 83134Q, 83134Q-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. A. Baker and J. Y. Lo, “Breast tomosynthesis: state-of-the-art and review of the literature,” Acad. Radiol.18(10), 1298–1310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Abdi, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, “Optomechanical imaging system for breast cancer detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28, 2473–2493 (2011).

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. A. Maidment, “The future of medical imaging,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry139(1-3), 3–7 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Shafer, E. Samei, and J. Y. Lo, “The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging,” Med. Phys.37(3), 1004–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, K. Lee, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, E. M. Hillman, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography with spectral constraints and wavelength optimization,” Appl. Opt.44(11), 2082–2093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt.42(25), 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Corlu, T. Durduran, R. Choe, M. Schweiger, E. M. C. Hillman, S. R. Arridge, and A. G. Yodh, “Uniqueness and wavelength optimization in continuous-wave multispectral diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(23), 2339–2341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Chen, P. Guo, S. Yan, D. Piao, and Q. Zhu, “Simultaneous near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound imaging,” Appl. Opt.40(34), 6367–6380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Abdi, R. A.

Abele, C.

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acharyya, S.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al Abdi, R.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albagli, D.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Averbukh, A.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, J. A.

J. A. Baker and J. Y. Lo, “Breast tomosynthesis: state-of-the-art and review of the literature,” Acad. Radiol.18(10), 1298–1310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

R. A. Abdi, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, and R. L. Barbour, “Optomechanical imaging system for breast cancer detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28, 2473–2493 (2011).

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, E. A.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt.42(25), 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boverman,

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boverman, G.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks,

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks, D. H.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

Brooksby, B. A.

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Carp, J.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, C. M.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castleberry, D. E.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Chaves, T.

Chen, N. G.

Choe, R.

Chorlton, M.

Christian, B. T.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Corlu, A.

Davis, S. C.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeJule, M. C.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Desperito, E.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Eames, M. E.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S. S.

S. S. Feng and I. Sechopoulos, “Clinical digital breast tomosynthesis system: dosimetric characterization,” Radiology263(1), 35–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, P. F.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Flexman, M. L.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fobare, D. F.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fong, C. J.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foschum, F.

Gatsonis, C.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giambattista, B. W.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Giardino, A. A.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

Guo, P.

Hendrick, R. E.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, B.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hershman, D. L.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M.

Hillman, E. M. C.

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jing, Z.

B. Ren, A. Smith, and Z. Jing, “Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis,” Proc. SPIE8313, 83134Q, 83134Q-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H.

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, M. A.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Kilmer, M. E.

Kim, H. K.

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopans, D. B.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt.42(25), 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Kopans, R. H.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, V.

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

Kwasnick, R. F.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Landberg, C. E.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Lee, K.

Li, A.

Liu, J.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Lo, J. Y.

J. A. Baker and J. Y. Lo, “Breast tomosynthesis: state-of-the-art and review of the literature,” Acad. Radiol.18(10), 1298–1310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Shafer, E. Samei, and J. Y. Lo, “The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging,” Med. Phys.37(3), 1004–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubowski, S. J.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Maidment, A. D. A.

A. D. A. Maidment, “The future of medical imaging,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry139(1-3), 3–7 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michaelsen, K.

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

Michels, R.

Miller, D. H.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, E. L.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt.42(25), 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, E. L.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Moore, R. H.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. E. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt.42(25), 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, C.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niklason, L. E.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Niklason, L. T.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Opsahl-Ong, B. H.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Österberg, U. L.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

Piao, D.

Pisano, E. D.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B.

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S.

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

Poplack, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Possin, G. E.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Qianqian Fang, S. A.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan Zhang, D. B.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, B.

B. Ren, A. Smith, and Z. Jing, “Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis,” Proc. SPIE8313, 83134Q, 83134Q-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richotte, J. F.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Samei, E.

C. M. Shafer, E. Samei, and J. Y. Lo, “The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging,” Med. Phys.37(3), 1004–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

Sechopoulos, I.

S. S. Feng and I. Sechopoulos, “Clinical digital breast tomosynthesis system: dosimetric characterization,” Radiology263(1), 35–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, G.

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, C. M.

C. M. Shafer, E. Samei, and J. Y. Lo, “The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging,” Med. Phys.37(3), 1004–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slanetz, P. J.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Smith, A.

B. Ren, A. Smith, and Z. Jing, “Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis,” Proc. SPIE8313, 83134Q, 83134Q-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

Stott, J.

Weaver, J.

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, C. Y.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Wells, W. A.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wirth, R. F.

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Wu, T.

Xu, Y.

Yaffe, M. J.

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, S.

Yodh, A. G.

Zhang, Q.

Zhu, Q.

Acad. Radiol. (1)

J. A. Baker and J. Y. Lo, “Breast tomosynthesis: state-of-the-art and review of the literature,” Acad. Radiol.18(10), 1298–1310 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “Strategies for absolute calibration of near infrared tomographic tissue imaging,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.530, 85–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

R. E. Hendrick, E. D. Pisano, A. Averbukh, C. Moran, E. A. Berns, M. J. Yaffe, B. Herman, S. Acharyya, and C. Gatsonis, “Comparison of acquisition parameters and breast dose in digital mammography and screen-film mammography in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network digital mammographic imaging screening trial,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.194(2), 362–369 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Commun. Numer. Methods Eng. (1)

H. Dehghani, M. E. Eames, P. K. Yalavarthy, S. C. Davis, S. Srinivasan, C. M. Carpenter, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near infrared optical tomography using NIRFAST: Algorithm for numerical model and image reconstruction,” Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.25(6), 711–732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. A. Brooksby, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared tomography breast image reconstruction with a priori structural information from MRI: algorithm development for reconstructing heterogeneities,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.9(2), 199–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

S. A. Qianqian Fang, J. Carp, G. Selb, Boverman, D. B. Quan Zhang, R. H. Kopans, E. L. Moore, D. H. Miller, Brooks, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical imaging and mammography of the healthy breast: optical contrast derived from breast structure and compression,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging28(1), 30–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, C. Abele, and H. Kaufman, “Calibration of near-infrared frequency-domain tissue spectroscopy for absolute absorption coefficient quantitation in neonatal head-simulating phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt.5(2), 185–193 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, J. Weaver, C. Kogel, and S. P. Poplack, “Combining near-infrared tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to study in vivo breast tissue: implementation of a Laplacian-type regularization to incorporate magnetic resonance structure,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(5), 051504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Flexman, M. A. Khalil, R. Al Abdi, H. K. Kim, C. J. Fong, E. Desperito, D. L. Hershman, R. L. Barbour, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(7), 076014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (2)

K. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, B. Pogue, S. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared spectral tomography integrated with digital breast tomosynthesis: optical system design optimization,” Med. Phys.in press.

C. M. Shafer, E. Samei, and J. Y. Lo, “The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging,” Med. Phys.37(3), 1004–1016 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Ren, A. Smith, and Z. Jing, “Measurement of breast density with digital breast tomosynthesis,” Proc. SPIE8313, 83134Q, 83134Q-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry (1)

A. D. A. Maidment, “The future of medical imaging,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry139(1-3), 3–7 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (3)

S. S. Feng and I. Sechopoulos, “Clinical digital breast tomosynthesis system: dosimetric characterization,” Radiology263(1), 35–42 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Niklason, B. T. Christian, L. E. Niklason, D. B. Kopans, D. E. Castleberry, B. H. Opsahl-Ong, C. E. Landberg, P. J. Slanetz, A. A. Giardino, R. Moore, D. Albagli, M. C. DeJule, P. F. Fitzgerald, D. F. Fobare, B. W. Giambattista, R. F. Kwasnick, J. Liu, S. J. Lubowski, G. E. Possin, J. F. Richotte, C. Y. Wei, and R. F. Wirth, “Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging,” Radiology205(2), 399–406 (1997).
[PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. Selb, S. A. Carp, G. Boverman, E. L. Miller, D. H. Brooks, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, and D. A. Boas, “Combined optical and X-ray tomosynthesis breast imaging,” Radiology258(1), 89–97 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev Sci Instrum (1)

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Österberg, and K. D. Paulsen, “A parallel-detection frequency-domain near-infrared tomography system for hemoglobin imaging of the breast in vivo,” Rev Sci Instrum72(3), 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, B. Brooksby, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, W. A. Wells, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared characterization of breast tumors in vivo using spectrally-constrained reconstruction,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.4(5), 513–526 (2005).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the NIRST/DBT imaging system. (b) Photograph of the fully assembled NIRST/DBT system installed at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC). (c) Photograph showing the silicon photodiode detector panel inserted into the custom designed cassette assembly to allow easy insertion and removal of the panel during sequential DBT/NIRST scans. (d) Photograph of the 2- axis galvanometric scanning mirror assembly mounted adjacent to the x-ray emission port on the DBT scanner. The source unit allows arbitrary positioning and scanning of laser light beams onto the compressed breast surface without obstructing the x-ray field-of-view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic showing the calibration puck positioned over an individual detector element in the detector panel. (b) Schematic drawing of the calibration puck showing a square notch on top that allows repeatable positioning over each detector element. (c) Correction factor for each of the 75 detector elements showing variations in individual detector response (certain detector channel numbers are unused). (d) Raw tomographic projection data plotted as a function of source-detector separation acquired from a homogeneous test phantom at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. (e) Processed data showing the removal of signal artifacts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the intralipid/blood inclusion phantom construct which is 24 cm (in the X-direction) by 16 cm (in the Y-direction) by 5.2 cm (in the Z-drection). (b) Photographs of the fabricated top and bottom layers of the phantom and the addition of a liquid inclusion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-Z (a-d), X-Y (e-h), and Y-Z (i-l) cross-sectional views (see Fig. 3(a) for phantom coordinate system) of the reconstructed HbT images in the center of the inclusion region for the 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 contrast phantoms. (m) Horizontal (X-direction) line plot through the center of the contrast region (see dotted line in (e)) for the three contrast phantoms (A = 2:1; B = 3:1; C = 4:1). (n) Vertical (Y-direction) line plot showing HbT concentration through the center plane of the phantom inclusion (see dotted line in (e)).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-Y cross-sectional views of the reconstructed HbT images for the 1:1 (a), 2:1 (b), and 3:1 (c) contrast phantoms. (d) Cut-away view of the FEM mesh showing the background and inclusion regions. (e) Plot of recovered HbT contrast in the background (solid triangles) and inclusion region (solid circles) vs actual HbT concentration in the background and inclusion. Linear fits show that the HbT concentration is nearly constant in the background and varies linearly in the inclusion as expected.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Key Performance Parameters of the NIRST-DBT System

Metrics