Abstract

In this paper, the polarization dependent optical properties of GaN surface relief grating are investigated using dark field angle-resolved photoluminescence (ARPL) spectrometer. The light extraction efficiency with the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) pumping source represents a TE polarized dominated property. It is found that the TE and TM waveguide modes cannot be simultaneously coupled out, therefore light extraction is polarization dependent. The ARPL spectrum also reveals that the extraction efficiency is relatively high as the dispersion line of the waveguide mode is coincident with the folded free-photon dispersion of the 1D GaN grating.

© 2012 OSA

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  2. C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “The influence of nanoimprinting surface structures on the optical efficiency of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.10(3), 587–593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, C. Y. Chen, and Y. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of high-refractive-index microstructures and their applications to the efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs,” Opt. Express19(S6Suppl 6), A1231–A1236 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pan, S. H. Tu, W. S. Sun, C. M. Wang, and J. Y. Chang, “Integration of non-Lambertian LED and reflective optical element as efficient street lamp,” Opt. Express18(S2Suppl 2), A221–A230 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354005 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ishida, K. Yoshimura, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes by using needle-shape indium tin oxide p-contact,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2083–2085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chang, S.-J.

R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

Chiang, C.-H.

R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin, B.-H.

C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. J.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. Y.

Chung, C. S.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ciou, M. J.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “The influence of nanoimprinting surface structures on the optical efficiency of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.10(3), 587–593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.-J.

C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diana, F. S.

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda and M. Fujita, “Light-emitting diodes: photonic crystal efficiency boost,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 129–130 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

F. Ishida, K. Yoshimura, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes by using needle-shape indium tin oxide p-contact,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2083–2085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-C.

R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “The influence of nanoimprinting surface structures on the optical efficiency of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.10(3), 587–593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, N.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, F.

F. Ishida, K. Yoshimura, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes by using needle-shape indium tin oxide p-contact,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2083–2085 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. R.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature386(6621), 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. K.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
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J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
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J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
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J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
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J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
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J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
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J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
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Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “The influence of nanoimprinting surface structures on the optical efficiency of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.10(3), 587–593 (2011).
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C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
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R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
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R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
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E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
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E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354005 (2010).
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A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
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J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
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A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
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J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
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Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
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J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
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A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
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A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
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C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
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J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
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J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
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J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
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E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
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E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354005 (2010).
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E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
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A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
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J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
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S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, K.

F. Ishida, K. Yoshimura, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Improved light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light emitting diodes by using needle-shape indium tin oxide p-contact,” Phys. Status Solidi C5(6), 2083–2085 (2008).
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R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
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C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Express

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3(3), 032103 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, C. Meier, R. Sharma, F. S. Diana, S. P. DenBaars, E. Hu, S. Nakamura, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic bands in two-dimensionally patterned multimode GaN waveguides for light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(10), 101107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. H. Lee, J. T. Oh, Y. C. Kim, and J. H. Lee, “Stress reduction and enhanced extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED grown on cone-shape-patterned sapphire,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1563–1565 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2347–2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.

Y. C. Lee, M. J. Ciou, and J. S. Huang, “The influence of nanoimprinting surface structures on the optical efficiency of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol.10(3), 587–593 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
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C. F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J. H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.-M. Lin, Y.-C. Lu, S.-F. Yu, Y.-C. S. Wu, C.-H. Chiang, W.-C. Hsu, and S.-J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354005 (2010).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. B. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. W. Kim, S. K. Kang, S. R. Jeon, N. Hwang, Y. J. Choi, and C. S. Chung, “Light extraction enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes using volcano-shaped patterned sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 042102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of InGaN/GaN LED (a) with GaN 1D grating and (b) vertical effective refractive index profile of the characterized GaN LED.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the ARPL of nanostructured samples; the inset shows definitions for θ: collecting angle of the fiber, ϕ: sample orientation, and x/y movement directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ARPL spectrum of InGaN/GaN MQWs bare chip. The negative and positive collection angles represent the TM-TE mode and TE-TM mode, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ARPL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs with grating periods of (a) 0.3μm and (b) 0.75μm. The negative and positive collection angles represent the TM-TE mode and TE-TM mode, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical dispersion extracted waveguide modes for a grating period of 0.3μm. The thickness of GaN is assumed to be 4.6μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Enhancement factor (normalized to the bare chip) for LED light extraction as a function of the grating period. The black and red colors represents the enhancement factor for the TE-TM and TM-TE modes, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

PL intensity enhancement factor as a function of collection angles. The enhancement is normalized to the bare chip. The negative and positive collection angles represent the TM-TE mode and TE-TM mode, respectively.

Equations (3)

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n GaN = n 0 + a=1 3 ( 2 A a π )( w a 4 ( λ λ a ) 2 + w a 2 )
k 0 n GaN hcos( θ d ) m w π= ϕ top + ϕ bottom , m w =0,1,2,...,
k 0 sin( θ out )= n GaN sin( θ d )+ m g K g

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