Abstract

We demonstrate stable, single-frequency output from single, as-fabricated GaN nanowire lasers operating far above lasing threshold. Each laser is a linear, double-facet GaN nanowire functioning as gain medium and optical resonator, fabricated by a top-down technique that exploits a tunable dry etch plus anisotropic wet etch for precise control of the nanowire dimensions and high material gain. A single-mode linewidth of ~0.12 nm and >18dB side-mode suppression ratio are measured. Numerical simulations indicate that single-mode lasing arises from strong mode competition and narrow gain bandwidth.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-Nanowire Single-Mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Reculusa and S. Ravaine, “Synthesis of colloidal crystals of controllable thickness through the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Chem. Mater.15(2), 598–605 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Sargent, W. E. Lamb, and R. L. Fork, “Theory of a Zeeman Laser. I,” Phys. Rev.164(2), 436–449 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Lotka, “Contribution to the theory of periodic reactions,” J. Phys. Chem.14(3), 271–274 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. W. Chow, “Theory of emission from an active photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. A73(1), 013821 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. W. Chow, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of Laser Gain in Group-III Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(6), 754–756 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-Nanowire Single-Mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

W. W. Chow, “Theory of emission from an active photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. A73(1), 013821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reculusa and S. Ravaine, “Synthesis of colloidal crystals of controllable thickness through the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Chem. Mater.15(2), 598–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. W. Chow, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of Laser Gain in Group-III Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(6), 754–756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. Sargent, W. E. Lamb, and R. L. Fork, “Theory of a Zeeman Laser. I,” Phys. Rev.164(2), 436–449 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1910 (1)

A. J. Lotka, “Contribution to the theory of periodic reactions,” J. Phys. Chem.14(3), 271–274 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, “Theory of emission from an active photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. A73(1), 013821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of Laser Gain in Group-III Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(6), 754–756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, L. C.

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

Cross, K. C.

Dai, L.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-Nanowire Single-Mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X. F.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathololoumi, S.

Figiel, J. J.

Fischer, A. J.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

M. Sargent, W. E. Lamb, and R. L. Fork, “Theory of a Zeeman Laser. I,” Phys. Rev.164(2), 436–449 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, T.

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F. X.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-Nanowire Single-Mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hara, S.

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, W. Guo, and P. Bhattacharya, “Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(2), 021110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hua, B.

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffaker, D. L.

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorr, A.

W. W. Chow, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of Laser Gain in Group-III Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(6), 754–756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, W. S.

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

W. W. Chow, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of Laser Gain in Group-III Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(6), 754–756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

Lamb, W. E.

M. Sargent, W. E. Lamb, and R. L. Fork, “Theory of a Zeeman Laser. I,” Phys. Rev.164(2), 436–449 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

Li, Q. M.

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, B. L.

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotka, A. J.

A. J. Lotka, “Contribution to the theory of periodic reactions,” J. Phys. Chem.14(3), 271–274 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Meng, C.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-Nanowire Single-Mode Laser,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mi, Z. T.

Motohisa, J.

B. Hua, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers,” Nano Lett.9(1), 112–116 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, S.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K. W.

R. Chen, T. T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, W. S. Ko, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasankumar, R. P.

P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, H.-G. Park, Y. Dong, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Multi-quantum-well nanowire heterostructures for wavelength-controlled lasers,” Nat. Mater.7(9), 701–706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gradecak, F. Qian, Y. Li, H. G. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “GaN nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(17), 173111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ravaine, S.

S. Reculusa and S. Ravaine, “Synthesis of colloidal crystals of controllable thickness through the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Chem. Mater.15(2), 598–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reculusa, S.

S. Reculusa and S. Ravaine, “Synthesis of colloidal crystals of controllable thickness through the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Chem. Mater.15(2), 598–605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, C.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roshko, A.

J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, S.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett.6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanford, N. A.

J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M.

M. Sargent, W. E. Lamb, and R. L. Fork, “Theory of a Zeeman Laser. I,” Phys. Rev.164(2), 436–449 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. D. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

A. C. Scofield, S. H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. L. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett.11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlager, J. B.

J. B. Schlager, N. A. Sanford, K. A. Bertness, and A. Roshko, “Injection-level-dependent internal quantum efficiency and lasing in low-defect GaN nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.109(4), 044312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, A. C.

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P. C. Upadhya, Q. M. Li, G. T. Wang, A. J. Fischer, A. J. Taylor, and R. P. Prasankumar, “The influence of defect states on non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in GaN nanowires,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25(2), 024017 (2010).
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