Abstract

A novel method is proposed for generating sharper fluorescent super-resolution spot by azimuthally polarized beam in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. The incoherent superposition of azimuthally polarized beam with five-zone binary phase plate and the same beam with quadrant 0/πphase plate can yield a tightly focused doughnut spot surrounded completely and uniformly. And azimuthally polarized beam modulated by a vortex 0—2π phase plate works as pump beam. Compared with known effective excitation spot yielded by circular polarized STED beam, the azimuthally polarized beam result is shaper, as well as energy-saving, costing only ~50% of the energy cost by circular polarized beam. A STED beam of less intensity has the potential to reduce fluorescence photobleaching and photodamage in living cell imaging. In addition, the influence of Ez absence as well as FWHM of pump beam in the focal field is discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

T. J. Gould, J. R. Myers, and J. Bewersdorf, “Total internal reflection STED microscopy,” Opt. Express19(14), 13351–13357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Phase encoding for sharper focus of the azimuthally polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3928–3930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun.279(2), 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Investigation of polarization effects for high-numerical-aperture first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams by 2D scanning with a single fluorescent microbead,” Opt. Express13(26), 10440–10447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Lateral resolution of 28 nm (λ/25) in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B77(4), 377–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, “Focal spots of size λ/23 open up far-field fluorescence microscopy at 33 nm Axial Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

Andrei, M. A.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benfenati, F.

Bewersdorf, J.

Bianchini, P.

Blanca, C. M.

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun.279(2), 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Investigation of polarization effects for high-numerical-aperture first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams by 2D scanning with a single fluorescent microbead,” Opt. Express13(26), 10440–10447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daigoku, K.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun.279(2), 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaspro, A.

Donnert, G.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyba, M.

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, “Focal spots of size λ/23 open up far-field fluorescence microscopy at 33 nm Axial Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggeling, C.

M. Leutenegger, C. Ringemann, T. Lasser, S. W. Hell, and C. Eggeling, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with a total internal reflection fluorescence STED microscope (TIRF-STED-FCS),” Opt. Express20(5), 5243–5263 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egner, A.

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Investigation of polarization effects for high-numerical-aperture first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams by 2D scanning with a single fluorescent microbead,” Opt. Express13(26), 10440–10447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galiani, S.

Gould, T. J.

Gu, Z.

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Phase encoding for sharper focus of the azimuthally polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3928–3930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harke, B.

Hell, S. W.

M. Leutenegger, C. Ringemann, T. Lasser, S. W. Hell, and C. Eggeling, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with a total internal reflection fluorescence STED microscope (TIRF-STED-FCS),” Opt. Express20(5), 5243–5263 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Lateral resolution of 28 nm (λ/25) in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B77(4), 377–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, “Focal spots of size λ/23 open up far-field fluorescence microscopy at 33 nm Axial Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar and S. W. Hell, “Subdiffraction resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett.24(14), 954–956 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett.19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iketaki, Y.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Investigation of polarization effects for high-numerical-aperture first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams by 2D scanning with a single fluorescent microbead,” Opt. Express13(26), 10440–10447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishiuchi, S.-i.

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, R.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastrup, L.

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Lateral resolution of 28 nm (λ/25) in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B77(4), 377–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, J.

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

Ku, Y.

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, C.

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Phase encoding for sharper focus of the azimuthally polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3928–3930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leutenegger, M.

Lignani, G.

Liu, X.

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Phase encoding for sharper focus of the azimuthally polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3928–3930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lührmann, R.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medda, R.

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, J. R.

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringemann, C.

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rizzoli, S. O.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, M.

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schönle, A.

Seeger, J.

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullal, C. K.

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicidomini, G.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Phase encoding for sharper focus of the azimuthally polarized beam,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3928–3930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, and M. Fujii, “Investigation of polarization effects for high-numerical-aperture first-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams by 2D scanning with a single fluorescent microbead,” Opt. Express13(26), 10440–10447 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Westphal, V.

B. Harke, J. Keller, C. K. Ullal, V. Westphal, A. Schönle, and S. W. Hell, “Resolution scaling in STED microscopy,” Opt. Express16(6), 4154–4162 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Lateral resolution of 28 nm (λ/25) in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B77(4), 377–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wildanger, D.

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Y.

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. Westphal, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Lateral resolution of 28 nm (λ/25) in far-field fluorescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B77(4), 377–380 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “Laser-diode-stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 3125–3127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Wildanger, R. Medda, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, “A compact STED microscope providing 3D nanoscale resolution,” J. Microsc.236(1), 35–43 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (2)

Y. Xue, C. Kuang, X. Hao, Z. Gu, and X. Liu, “A method for generating a three-dimensional dark spot using a radially polarized beam,” J. Opt.13(12), 125704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, T. Wang, and X. Liu, “Effects of polarization on the de-excitation dark focal spot in STED microscopy,” J. Opt.12(11), 115707 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

V. Westphal, J. Seeger, T. Salditt, and S. W. Hell, “Stimulated emission depletion microscopy on lithographic nanostructures,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.38(9), S695–S705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional nanoscopy of colloidal crystals,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1309–1313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nat. Photonics3(7), 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. Dyba, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, “Phase filter enhanced STED-4Pi fluorescence microscopy: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.7, 134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, “On polarization effects in fluorescence depletion microscopy,” Opt. Commun.272(1), 263–268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kuang, X. Hao, X. Liu, T. Wang, and Y. Ku, “Formation of sub-half-wavelength focal spot with ultra long depth of focus,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1766–1769 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, “A three dimensional dark focal spot uniformly surrounded by light,” Opt. Commun.279(2), 229–234 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S.-i. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, “Theoretical investigation of the point-spread function given by super-resolving fluorescence microscopy using two-color fluorescence dip spectroscopy,” Opt. Eng.44(3), 033602–033609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, “Focal spots of size λ/23 open up far-field fluorescence microscopy at 33 nm Axial Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(16), 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale resolution in the focal plane of an optical microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(14), 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Macromolecular-scale resolution in biological fluorescence microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(31), 11440–11445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. R. Boruah, “Programmable Diffractive Optics for Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” in Imperial College London (Imperial College London, 2007).

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